Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 123 - 124, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0014
Information, English

Anna Klamerus-Iwan, Artemi Cerda, Ľubomír Lichner: Biological factors impact hydrological processes

 Full Text in PDF     54 DOWNLOADS

 

  • Data not available

    KEY WORDS: Data not available

    Address:
    - Anna Klamerus-Iwan, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Elological Engineering and Forest Hydrology, Al. 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland.
    - Artemi Cerda, Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group, Department of Geography, Valencia University, Blasco Ibanez, 28, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
    - Ľubomír Lichner, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 125 - 131, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0013
Scientific Paper, English

Eugene V. Balashov, Aleksei V. Dobrokhotov, Lyudmila V. Kozyreva: Effects of thermal and hydrophysical properties of sandy Haplic Podzol on actual evapotranspiration of spring wheat

 Full Text in PDF     44 DOWNLOADS

 

  • The objectives of the research were to: (1) assess the strength of relationships between the soil thermal and hydrophysical properties, (2) evaluate the strength of association of evapotranspiration of spring wheat crop with soil thermal and hydrophysical properties, and (3) estimate the ranges of the thermal and hydrophysical properties of the sandy Haplic Podzol during the growing period of spring wheat in 2022. The study included instrumental simultaneous measurements of meteorological data, soil water retention curve, soil moisture content (SMC) and thermal properties. Actual evapotranspiration was calculated according to the Allen equation. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients showed that the increase in SMC from 0.10 cm3 cm–3 to 0.26 cm3 cm–3 resulted in a significant increase in thermal conductivity (r = 0.81, p < 0.001), volumetric heat capacity (r = 0.93, p < 0.001) and thermal diffusivity (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). Actual evapotranspiration also rose with the increasing SMC (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) and matric water potentials (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). As a consequence of the changes in SMC, the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients supported the strong positive relationships of actual evapotranspiration with volumetric heat capacity (r = 0.97, p < 0.001), thermal conductivity (r = 0.96, p < 0.001) and thermal diffusivity (r = 0.96, p < 0.001). Pearson correlation coefficients also supported the strong input of thermal inertia to the actual evapotranspiration (r = 0.88, p < 0.01). During the whole period of observations, actual evapotranspiration varied from 0.05 to 0.59 mm hr–1, soil thermal conductivity – from 0.225 to –1.056 W m–1 K–1, volumetric heat capacity – from 1.057 to 1.889 MJ m–3 K–1, heat diffusivity from 0.189 to 0.559 mm2 s–1, and thermal inertia – from 516 to 1412 J m–2 K–1 s–0.5.

    KEY WORDS: Soil; Thermal properties; Hydrophysical properties; Actual evapotranspiration.

    Address:
    - Eugene V. Balashov, Department of Soil Physics, Physical Chemistry and Biophysics, Agrophysical Research Institute, Grazhdansky pr. 14, 195220 St. Petersburg, Russia. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+79214008487 Fax.: Email: Eugene_Balashov@mail.ru)
    - Aleksei V. Dobrokhotov, Department of Soil Physics, Physical Chemistry and Biophysics, Agrophysical Research Institute, Grazhdansky pr. 14, 195220 St. Petersburg, Russia.
    - Lyudmila V. Kozyreva, Department of Soil Physics, Physical Chemistry and Biophysics, Agrophysical Research Institute, Grazhdansky pr. 14, 195220 St. Petersburg, Russia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 132 - 138, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0002
Scientific Paper, English

Giora J. Kidron, Rafael Kronenfeld, Marina Temina: The different effects of regional and local winds on dew formation in the Negev desert

 Full Text in PDF     38 DOWNLOADS

 

  • With dew serving as an important water source for various small organisms and plants in deserts, knowledge regarding the spatial distribution of dew (which constitutes an important fraction of the non-rainfall water, NRW) is of prime importance. This is also the case for the Negev dew desert. According to the classical model, local nocturnal katabatic winds that descend down the slopes during the night to the wadi beds are responsible for the accumulation of cold air, subsequently triggering dew formation in the wadis. Nevertheless, NRW measurements that were conducted in a one-order drainage basin in the Negev during the dewy season (late summer and fall) yielded half the amount in the wadi bed in comparison to the hilltop, attributed to the sheltered position of the wadi from the cooling effect of the regional (sea-breeze) winds, which are not considered by the classical model. Hypothesizing that the classical model may however take place at wide wadi where the sea breeze winds are not sheltered, measurements of dew and temperatures were periodically carried out at the beds of a 5 m-wide narrow (NW) and a 200 m-wide (WW) wadi beds and at the hilltop (HT). The findings did not fully support our hypothesis. In comparison to the hilltop, and despite the mutual effect of the katabatic and the sea breeze winds on the wide wadi bed, also the wide wadi exhibited lower amounts of dew than that of the hilltop, with NRW following the pattern HT > WW > NW. The overwhelming effect of the sea-breeze winds was also supported indirectly by periodic NRW and temperature measurements during the winter during which the sea breeze does not commonly take place. Evidence suggests that whereas the classical model takes place during the winter during which the katabatic winds may play a central role in dew formation, the occurrence of the sea breeze (regional wind) during the late summer and fall overshadows the effect of the local katabatic winds. Our findings point to the possibility that the classical model may not adequately predict dew formation in regions subjected to sea-breeze winds.

    KEY WORDS: Katabatic winds; Non-rainfall water (NRW); Sea breeze; Surface temperatures.

    Address:
    - Giora J. Kidron, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University, Givat Ram Campus, Jerusalem 91904, Israel. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+972-2-676-7271 Fax.: +972-2-566-2581 Email: kidron@mail.huji.ac.il)
    - Rafael Kronenfeld, Meteorological unit; Israel Meteorological Service, Kibbutz Sede Boqer 84993, Israel.
    - Marina Temina, Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, 199 Aba Khoushy Ave, Mount Carmel, Haifa 3498838, Israel.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 139 - 147, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0010
Scientific Paper, English

Anna Klamerus-Iwan, Rafał Kozłowski, Anna Sadowska-Rociek, Ewa Słowik-Opoka, Dawid Kupka, Paolo Giordani, Philipp Porada, John T. Van Stan: Influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on water storage capacity of two lichens species

 Full Text in PDF     27 DOWNLOADS

 

  • The wide variability in functional traits that enable the cosmopolitan distribution of lichens often includes the water storage capacity, S, of their thallus. Lichen S in forest canopies can be large enough to intercept and evaporate significant amounts of rainwater, contributing to the runoff-reduction ecosystem services provided by urban forests; however, S is likely influenced by the presence of air pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) in urban areas. PAHs, being both chemically hydrophobic and damaging to lichen thalli, are expected to reduce lichens’ S and, thereby, limit their contribution to hydrologic ecoservices of urban forests. Hence, the relationship between PAH accumulation and rainwater uptake was examined for two lichen species, common in urban forests around the world – Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples were collected from an area of low air pollution and another area in a highly urbanized city centre with high air pollution exposure (Kraków, Poland). Lichen S was determined using laboratorysimulated rainfall. PAH bioaccumulation differed between species and among the samples from clean and polluted environments. After exposure to polluted air, the concentration of PAHs was higher in P. glauca than P. furfuracea. Samples from the non-urban setting, however, showed no differences between the two species. In the case of P. glauca, S decreased from 35.8% in samples from clean environment to 8.3% after six months of exposure in the urban setting. The respective S values for P. furfuracea were 25.4% and 12.4%. Results strongly suggest that PAH exposure reduces S in both lichen species. The obtained results are important both in ecohydrology and microclimatology and are part of the research on the condition of urban forests.

    KEY WORDS: Ecohydrology; Simulated precipitation; PAH; Rainfall interception; Retention; Urban forests.

    Address:
    - Anna Klamerus-Iwan, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Utilization, Engineering & Forest Technology, Al. 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+48 601 652 707 Fax.: 12 411 97 152 Email: a.klamerus-iwan@ur.krakow.pl)
    - Rafał Kozłowski, Jan Kochanowski University, Institute of Geography and Environmental Sciences, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce, Poland.
    - Anna Sadowska-Rociek, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Faculty of Food Technology, Malopolska Centre of Food Monitoring, ul. Balicka 122; 30-149 Krakow, Poland.
    - Ewa Słowik-Opoka, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Utilization, Engineering & Forest Technology, Al. 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow, Poland.
    - Dawid Kupka, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Ecology and Silviculture, Al. 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków, Poland.
    - Paolo Giordani, DIFAR, University of Genova, viale Cembrano 4, 16148, Genova, Italy.
    - Philipp Porada, Universität Hamburg, Ecological Modelling, Ohnhorststr. 18, 22609 Hamburg, Germany.
    - John T. Van Stan, Cleveland State University, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland, OH, USA.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 148 - 155, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0011
Scientific Paper, English

Ľubomír Lichner, Peter Šurda, Lucia Toková, Slavomír Hološ, Jozef Kollár, Dušan Igaz: Impact of duration of land abandonment on soil properties

 Full Text in PDF     25 DOWNLOADS

 

  • Abandonment of agricultural fields triggers the ecosystem recovery in the process referred to as secondary succession. The objective of this study was to find the impact of secondary succession during 12 years lasting abandonment of agricultural fields with loamy sand and sandy loam soils on soil properties, namely soil organic carbon content, pH, water and ethanol sorptivity, hydraulic conductivity, water drop penetration time (WDPT), and repellency index (RI). The method of space-for-time substitution was used so that the fields abandoned at different times were treated as a homogeneous chronosequence. The studied soils showed a permanent increase in WDPT and a monotonous decrease in pH and water sorptivity with the duration of field abandonment. The dependence of the other characteristics on the duration of field abandonment was not unambiguous. The ethanol sorptivity decreased between 0 and 8 years of field abandonment, and increased between 8 and 12 years, when it copied a similar course of sand content during abandonment. The hydraulic conductivity halved within the first eight years of field abandonment and then increased statistically insignificantly between 8 and 12 years of abandonment. The repellency index decreased statistically insignificantly between 0 and 8 years of abandonment and then increased between 8 and 12 years.

    KEY WORDS: Field abandonment; Loamy sand soil; Water repellency; Infiltration.

    Address:
    - Ľubomír Lichner, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: lichner@uh.savba.sk)
    - Peter Šurda, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    - Lucia Toková, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    - Slavomír Hološ, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia. Institute of Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, Hospodárska 7, Nitra, Slovakia.
    - Jozef Kollár, Institute of Landscape Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefánikova 3, 81499 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    - Dušan Igaz, Institute of Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, Hospodárska 7, Nitra, Slovakia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 156 - 168, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0008
Scientific Paper, English

Charles Wang Wai Ng, Lisa Touyon, Sanandam Bordoloi: Influence of biochar on improving hydrological and nutrient status of two decomposed soils for yield of medicinal plant - Pinellia ternata

 Full Text in PDF     20 DOWNLOADS

 

  • The root tuber of Pinellia ternata has been used as a traditional therapeutic herbal medicine. It is reported to impart beneficial attributes in recovering COVID-19 patients. To meet an increasing demand of P. ternata, this study is intended to investigate the effects of biochar on the soil hydrological and agronomic properties of two decomposed soils (i.e., completely decomposed granite (CDG) and lateritic soil) for the growth of P. ternata. The plant was grown in instrumented pots with different biochar application rate (0%, 3% and 5%) for a period of three months. Peanut shell biochar inclusion in both soils resulted in reduction of soil hydraulic conductivity and increase in soil water retention capacity. These alterations in hydrological properties were attributed to measured change in total porosity, biochar intra pore and hydrophilic functional groups. The macro-nutrient (i.e., N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) concentration of both soils increased substantially, while the pH and cation exchange capacity levels in the amended soils were altered to facilitate optimum growth of P. ternata. The tuber biomass in biochar amended CDG at all amendment rate increases by up to 70%. In case of lateritic soil, the tuber biomass increased by 23% at only 5% biochar application rate. All treatments satisfied the minimum succinic acid concentration required as per pharmacopoeia standard index. The lower tuber biomass exhibits a higher succinic acid concentration regardless of the soil type used to grow P. ternata. The biochar improved the yield and quality of P. ternata in both soils.

    KEY WORDS: Biochar; Nutrient; Soil water retention; Hydraulic conductivity; Covid19.

    Address:
    - Charles Wang Wai Ng, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR.
    - Lisa Touyon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR.
    - Sanandam Bordoloi, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR. Illinois Sustainable Technology Centre, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: sanandam@illinois.edu)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 169 - 176, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0006
Scientific Paper, English

Ewa Papierowska, Daria Sikorska, Sylwia Szporak-Wasilewska, Małgorzata Kleniewska, Tomasz Berezowski, Jarosław Chormański, Guillaume Debaene, Jan Szatyłowicz: Leaf wettability and plant surface water storage for common wetland species of the Biebrza peatlands (northeast Poland)

 Full Text in PDF     25 DOWNLOADS

 

  • Wetlands play a crucial role in buffering the effects of climate change. At the same time, they are one of the most endangered ecosystems on the globe. The knowledge of the water cycle and energy exchange is crucial for the practical preservation and exploiting their capabilities. Leaf wettability is an important parameter characterising the plant's ability to retain water on its surface, and is linked to the ecosystems' hydrological and ecological functioning. This research investigates the relationship between leaves' wettability based on contact angle measurements and water storage capacity (interception) for wetland vegetation. We performed the study for ten common plant species collected from Biebrza peatlands (Poland). We used CAM100 goniometer for the wetting contact angle measurements on the leaves' surface, and the weighing method for the plant surface water storage determination. The wetland plants' initial contact angle values ranged from 64.7° to 139.5° and 62.4° to 134.0° for the leaves' adaxial and abaxial parts, respectively. The average plant surface water storage was equal to 0.31 g·g–1, and values ranged from 0.09 to 0.76 g·g–1. The leaf hydrophobicity contributes to the amount of retained water. With increasing average contact angle, the amount of water retained on the plant decreased.

    KEY WORDS: Wetting contact angle; Interception; Peatlands; Biebrza wetlands.

    Address:
    - Ewa Papierowska, Water Centre, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland (Corresponding author. Tel.:+ 48 22 5935379 Fax.: Email: ewa_papierowska@sggw.edu.pl)
    - Daria Sikorska, Department of Remote Sensing and Environmental Assessment, Institute Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.
    - Sylwia Szporak-Wasilewska, Water Centre, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.
    - Małgorzata Kleniewska, Department of Remote Sensing and Environmental Assessment, Institute Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.
    - Tomasz Berezowski, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland.
    - Jarosław Chormański, Department of Remote Sensing and Environmental Assessment, Institute Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.
    - Guillaume Debaene, Department of Soil Science Erosion and Land Protection, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.
    - Jan Szatyłowicz, Department of Environmental Development, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02–776 Warsaw, Poland.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 177 - 187, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0009
Scientific Paper, English

H. T. M. Perera, D. A. L. Leelamanie, Morihiro Maeda, Yasushi Mori: Alterations in aggregate characteristics of thermally heated water-repellent soil aggregates under laboratory conditions

 Full Text in PDF     21 DOWNLOADS

 

  • The heat generated during wildfires modifies soil characteristics, including soil water repellency (SWR) and the water stability of aggregates, which are known to be interrelated. SWR lowers the rate of water entry into aggregates, minimizing aggregate disruption and subsequent erosion. This study aimed to examine these aggregate characteristics (SWR, water stability of aggregates) of thermally heated water-repellent soil aggregates under laboratory conditions. Water-repellent aggregates were collected from Eucalyptus grandis forest soil separately from four soil depths (0–5, 5–10, 10–15, and 15–20 cm) with varying initial repellency levels. Using an automated programmable muffle furnace, aggregates were separately exposed to three heating temperatures, TH (150, 200, 250 °C), three rates of heating (speed of rising temperature to reach relevant TH), RH (200, 400, 800 °C h–1), and three durations of exposure to relevant TH, ED (30, 60, 120 min). The molarity of an ethanol droplet test was used to measure the contact angle (contact angle>90°). The water drop penetration time (WDPT) was also measured. The SWR of aggregates declined with the increasing TH and ED. All aggregates were wettable once exposed to 250 °C. At the lowest TH and ED (150 °C, 30 min), the contact angle was <90° only in the least repellent aggregates collected from 10–15 and 15–20 cm depths. Although RH indicated the least influence on the measured parameters, the slowest RH (200 °C h–1) caused a comparatively greater decline in SWR. Water stability of aggregates increased with heating irrespective of decreasing SWR. Further investigations on heat-induced changes in organic compounds at molecular levels would be necessary to understand the theories for the behavior of aggregates.

    KEY WORDS: Eucalyptus grandis; Laboratory heating; Water repellency; Water stability of aggregates.

    Address:
    - H. T. M. Perera, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya 81100, Sri Lanka.
    - D. A. L. Leelamanie, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya 81100, Sri Lanka. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+94-71-861-4380 Fax.: +94-41-2292384 Email: leelamanie@soil.ruh.ac.lk; leelamaniee@yahoo.co.uk)
    - Morihiro Maeda, Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-Ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.
    - Yasushi Mori, Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-Ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 188 - 198, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0012
Scientific Paper, English

Borja Rodríguez-Lozano, Juan Martínez-Sánchez, Jaime Maza-Maza, Yolanda Cantón, Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero: New methodological approach to characterize dryland´s ecohydrological functionality on the basis of Balance between Connectivity and potential Water Retention Capacity (BalanCR)

 Full Text in PDF     21 DOWNLOADS

 

  • Drylands are ecohydrologically-coupled ecosystems whose functioning depends on the interplay between hydrological connectivity between runoff source areas and the capacity of vegetation to retain water fluxes and associated resources. In this study we present a new easily applicable methodology for the ecohydrological characterization of dryland ecosystem functioning grounded in the balance between these two strongly interrelated processes using easily obtainable remote sensing data (e.g. UAV and SENTINEL-2 images), the BalanCR method (Balance between Connectivity and potential Water Retention Capacity). This methodology was first tested on synthetic hillslopes representing different configurations of the patchy and heterogenic distribution of vegetation in drylands. The analysis of these synthetic vegetation spatial patterns involving different vegetation patch densities, sizes, and fractional coverage values showed that BalanCR properly characterizes the expected ecohydrological interactions between potential conditions of runoff connectivity and water retention by plants operating in drylands. In a second step, we applied the BalanCR method on four semiarid hillslopes along an altitudinal aridity gradient covered by Mediterranean alpha steppes at very detailed spatial resolution (0.2 m) and at medium resolution (10 m). The obtained results were validated based on soil moisture data and vegetation greening and clearly recognized the four study sites as functional ecosystems, with very low water resource losses, and a pattern of increasing water redistribution processes as vegetation coverage declines. However, the sensitivity of methodology depends on the resolution of the input data (vegetation map and Digital Elevation Model; DEM), and the expected positive effect of small vegetation structures (vegetation patches smaller than the pixel size) on water redistribution is underestimated. Even in this case, the functionality and connectivity of the analyzed sites is correctly characterized as ecosystems showed similar values of both components for the methodology BalanC (hydrological connectivity component) and BalanR (potential water retention capacity component) than those obtained at very detailed scale, with a similar pattern of water allocation values in response to increased aridity. Thus, the proposed metric represents a promising tool for the proper evaluation of dryland conditions and to incorporate hillslope processes in climate change models, which is one of the main gaps to better understand the drylands response upon ongoing climate change.

    KEY WORDS: Water redistribution; SENTINEL-2; UAV; Dryland monitoring; Index; Resource-leakiness feedbacks; Semiarid; Runoff; Hydrology; Vegetation spatial pattern.

    Address:
    - Borja Rodríguez-Lozano, Agronomy Department, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain. Research Centre for Scientific Collections from the University of Almería (CECOUAL), 04120, Almería, Spain. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: brl169@ual.es)
    - Juan Martínez-Sánchez, Agronomy Department, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain. Research Centre for Scientific Collections from the University of Almería (CECOUAL), 04120, Almería, Spain.
    - Jaime Maza-Maza, Technical University of Machala, Q23M+RX7, Machala, Ecuador.
    - Yolanda Cantón, Agronomy Department, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain. Research Centre for Scientific Collections from the University of Almería (CECOUAL), 04120, Almería, Spain.
    - Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Agronomy Department, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain. Research Centre for Scientific Collections from the University of Almería (CECOUAL), 04120, Almería, Spain.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 199 - 209, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0004
Scientific Paper, English

Vladimír Šimanský, Elżbieta Wójcik-Gront, Natalya Buchkina, Ján Horák: Managing soil organic matter through biochar application and varying levels of N fertilisation increases the rate of water-stable aggregates formation

 Full Text in PDF     26 DOWNLOADS

 

  • The formation of soil aggregates, including water-stable aggregates, is linked to soil organic matter (SOM). Biochar (B) is carbon-rich, which, in addition to storing carbon in a stable form for many years, has important benefits for soils and plants, but the mechanisms of soil structure formation after B and mineral fertiliser application are not sufficiently studied. For this reason, the study aimed to answer the following questions: How (1) the rate of B and (2) varying levels of nitrogen fertiliser (N) being applied to the soil affect the dynamics of soil aggregation due to the increase in the content of soil organic carbon, labile carbon in the bulk soil and in the content of water-stable aggregates (WSA) size-fractions. In 2014–2021, in Dolná Malanta (experimental site of Slovak University of Agriculture on silty loam Haplic Luvisol) during the growing seasons, soil samples were collected from all the B (0, 10 and 20 t ha–1) and N (0, 1st and 2nd level of N fertilisation) treatments. The results have shown that the highest values of many variables were associated with B20 treatment for all the N fertilisation levels. B compared to N more significantly affected the content of almost all the sizefractions of WSA. In all the treatments, the content of WSAma >5 mm, 5–3 mm, 3–2 mm and 1–0.5 mm in size was increasing over time – a yearly increase from 0.31 to 2.14% for 8-years. Based on the changes in the SOM content, WSA were divided into 3 groups: 1) Water-stable microaggregates (WSAmi < 0.25 mm), 2) Smaller size-fractions of waterstable macroaggregates (WSAma 1–0.25 mm), and 3) Medium and large fractions of WSAma (WSAma ≥1 mm).

    KEY WORDS: Soil structure; Water-stable aggregates; Biochar; Fertilisation.

    Address:
    - Vladimír Šimanský, Department of Soil Science, Institute of Agronomic Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: vladimir.simansky@uniag.sk)
    - Elżbieta Wójcik-Gront, Department of Biometry, Institute of Agriculture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02–776 Warsaw, Poland.
    - Natalya Buchkina, Department of Soil Physics, Physical Chemistry and Biophysics, Agrophysical Research Institute, 195220, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    - Ján Horák, Institute of Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 2, 2023, p. 210 - 220, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0007
Scientific Paper, English

Katarina Zabret, Klaudija Lebar, Mojca Šraj: Temporal response of urban soil water content in relation to the rainfall and throughfall dynamics in the open and below the trees

 Full Text in PDF     21 DOWNLOADS

 

  • Rainfall interception process is an important part of the biohydrological cycle, in which vegetation plays an important role by regulating the amount and dynamics of rainfall reaching the ground. In this paper, an event-based analysis is performed to discuss the influence of vegetation on dynamic of temporal response of soil volumetric water content (VWC) in the upper soil layer during rainfall events. More specifically, six events that occurred between 19 November 2021 and 30 June 2022, characterized by different hydro-meteorological and vegetation conditions, are analyzed based on continuous measurements of VWC in the open and below groups of two deciduous (Betula pendula Roth.) and two coniferous trees (Pinus nigra Arnold), as well as rainfall in the open and throughfall on an urban experimental plot in Ljubljana, Slovenia. VWC values at the upper depth (16 cm) were the highest under the birch tree, followed by the location in the open and under the pine tree. However, in the lowest depth (74 cm) VWC values were the lowest under the birch tree. VWC responses to rainfall and throughfall showed seasonal patterns related to the pre-event wetness conditions, with a faster occurrence of maximum VWC values in the leafless period. Additionally, rainfall amount and its dynamics during the event significantly affect the response, as VWC in general reaches its peak after the occurrence of more intense rainfall. Such an event-based analysis, offering an insight into the dynamics of the event development, is crucial and very beneficial for understanding of the biohydrological processes.

    KEY WORDS: Rainfall interception; Volumetric water content; Rainfall event dynamic; Birch; Pine; Urban park.

    Address:
    - Katarina Zabret, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Institute for Water of the Republic of Slovenia, Einspielerjeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: katarina.zabret@fgg.uni-lj.si)
    - Klaudija Lebar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    - Mojca Šraj, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

     




JHH Editorial Office
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh
email: Lubomir.Lichner@savba.sk


Acta Hydrologica Slovaca
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah

Keep in touch with IH SAS

 Facebook

 RSS Feed

 YouTube