Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 303 - 305, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0036
Information, English

Paul D. Hallett, Tammo S. Steenhuis, Coen Ritsema, Ľubomír Lichner: Preface to the special issue on biohydrology dedicated to the memory of Dr. Louis W. Dekker

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  • Data not available

    KEY WORDS: Data not available

    Address:
    - Paul D. Hallett, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: paul.hallett@abdn.ac.uk)
    - Tammo S. Steenhuis, Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, 206 Riley Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 USA. Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    - Coen Ritsema, Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    - Ľubomír Lichner, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 306 - 312, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0032
Review, English

Michael Fidanza, Stanley Kostka, Cale Bigelow: Communication of soil water repellency causes, problems, and solutions of intensively managed amenity turf from 2000 to 2020

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  • Research and investigations of soil water repellency in turfgrass science is a relatively recent endeavor, with most notable progress beginning in the late 1990s and early 2000s and continuing into the present. The objectives of this review were to determine the extent of publications from 2000 to the present on the topic of soil water repellency in turfgrass science, and to assemble a list of soil surfactant product formulations currently available for the amenity turf industry in the USA and United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland in 2019. From 1 January 2000 through 1 June 2020, cumulative number of referred or peer-reviewed research journal articles was 64, the number of abstracts, reports, and proceedings was 87, and the number of professional and trade journal articles was 86. Published works in all categories represented a linear increase over time, and is indicative of increased research activity into this critical area of study. Soil surfactant products and formulations in the USA totaled 192, with 65 in UK/Ireland. The nonionic soil surfactant chemical category is the largest, representing 74% of products in the USA, and 66% of products in UK/Ireland. With formulation category, block copolymers and formulations that contain block copolymers or structurally modified block copolymers as a formulation component comprise the largest group with 58% of products in the USA, and 49% of products in UK/Ireland. Also by formulation category, 25% of USA products and 23% of UK/Ireland products are comprised of anionic and anionic blends and other formulations. Of note, 17% of products in the USA and 28% of products in UK/Ireland do not disclose their formulation. Dr. Louis Dekker’s pioneering insight and advances in soil water repellency has provided turfgrass scientists with a firm foundation and guidance with which to pursue research into the causes, problems, and amelioration of soil water repellency in turfgrass ecosystems. The global amenity turf industry remains the segment where Dr. Dekker’s research has had the most influence and impact to both scientists and turf practitioners.

    KEY WORDS: Soil hydrophobicity; Soil surfactants; Turfgrass science; Golf courses; Sports pitches; Localized dry patch; Rootzone.

    Address:
    - Michael Fidanza, Division of Science, Berks Campus, Pennsylvania State University, 111 Luerssen Building, Reading, PA 19610 USA. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: maf100@psu.edu)
    - Stanley Kostka, Division of Science, Berks Campus, Pennsylvania State University, 111 Luerssen Building, Reading, PA 19610 USA.
    - Cale Bigelow, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 313 - 327, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0015
Scientific Paper, English

Meseret B. Addisie, Getaneh K. Ayele, Nigus Hailu, Eddy J. Langendoen, Seifu A. Tilahun, Petra Schmitter, J.-Yves Parlange, Tammo S. Steenhuis: Connecting hillslope and runoff generation processes in the Ethiopian Highlands: The Ene-Chilala watershed

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  • Effective watershed planning requires an understanding of the hydrology. In the humid tropical monsoon climates and especially in volcanic highland regions such as the Ethiopian Highlands, the understanding of watershed processes is incomplete. The objective is to better understand the hydrology of the volcanic regions in the humid highlands by linking the hillslope processes with the discharge at the outlet. The Ene-Chilala watershed was selected for this study. The infiltration rate, piezometric water levels and discharge from two nested sub watersheds and at the watershed outlet were measured during a four-year period. Infiltration rates on the hillsides exceeded the rainfall intensity most of the time. The excess rain recharged a perched hillside aquifer. Water flowed through the perched aquifer as interflow to rivers and outlet. In addition, saturation excess overland flow was generated in the valley bottoms. Perched water tables heights were predicted by summing up the recharge over the travel time from the watershed divide. Travel times ranged from a few days for piezometers close to the divide to 40 days near the outlet. River discharge was simulated by adding the interflow from the upland to overland flow from the saturated valley bottom lands. Overland flow accounted only for one-fourth of the total flow. There was good agreement between predicted and observed discharge during the rain phase therefore the hillslope hydrologically processes were successfully linked with the discharge at the outlet.

    KEY WORDS: Hillslope hydrology; Saturation; Rainfall intensity; Perched groundwater; Ethiopian Highlands.

    Address:
    - Meseret B. Addisie, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Guna Tana Integrated Field Research and Development Center, Debre Tabor University, Ethiopia.
    - Getaneh K. Ayele, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    - Nigus Hailu, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    - Eddy J. Langendoen, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Sedimentation Laboratory, Oxford, MS, USA.
    - Seifu A. Tilahun, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    - Petra Schmitter, International Water Management Institute (IWMI) East Africa Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    - J.-Yves Parlange, Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, 206 Riley Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 USA.
    - Tammo S. Steenhuis, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, 206 Riley Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 USA. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: tammo@cornell.edu)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 328 - 337, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0033
Scientific Paper, English

Igor Bogunovic, Leon Josip Telak, Paulo Pereira, Vilim Filipovic, Lana Filipovic, Aleksandra Percin, Boris Durdevic, Márta Birkás, Igor Dekemati, Jesus Rodrigo Comino: Land management impacts on soil properties and initial soil erosion processes in olives and vegetable crops

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  • This research aims to assess the impacts of soil use management on runoff, soil losses, and their main soil controls in vegetable cropland (CROP), tilled olives (OT), and grass-covered olive orchards (OGC) on Leptosol in Croatia. Soil analysis and rainfall simulation experiments were conducted to quantify runoff (Run), soil, and nutrient losses. Bulk density (BD) was significantly higher at OT plots, in addition to the CROP plots. Water-stable aggregates (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD), and soil organic matter (OM) were significantly higher in OGC plots compared to the other land uses. Run and soil loss (SL) were significantly higher in CROP and OT plots compared to the OGC plots. The CROP plots showed soil management that can be considered as unsustainable with 52, 68- and 146-times higher losses of phosphorus (P loss), nitrogen (N loss), and carbon (C loss) compared to the OGC plots. The principal component analysis showed that MWD was associated with vegetation cover (VC), water-holding capacity (WHC), WSA, OM, total nitrogen (TN), time to ponding (TP), and time to runoff (TR). These variables were negatively related to P2O5, Run, SL, and P, N, and C loss. Results indicate the need for the adoption of conservation strategies in croplands and olive orchards.

    KEY WORDS: Soil erosion; Tillage; Rainfall simulation; Agriculture land management; Mediterranean.

    Address:
    - Igor Bogunovic, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, HR-10000, Zagreb, Croatia. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+385-1-2393815 Fax.: Email: ibogunovic@agr.hr)
    - Leon Josip Telak, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, HR-10000, Zagreb, Croatia.
    - Paulo Pereira, Environmental Management Laboratory, Mykolas Romeris University, LT-08303 Vilnius, Lithuania.
    - Vilim Filipovic, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, HR-10000, Zagreb, Croatia.
    - Lana Filipovic, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, HR-10000, Zagreb, Croatia.
    - Aleksandra Percin, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, HR-10000, Zagreb, Croatia.
    - Boris Durdevic, Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Sciences Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Vladimira Preloga 1, HR-31000, Osijek, Croatia.
    - Márta Birkás, Szent Istvan University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1, H-2103, Gödöllő, Hungary.
    - Igor Dekemati, Szent Istvan University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1, H-2103, Gödöllő, Hungary.
    - Jesus Rodrigo Comino, Department of Physical Geography, University of Trier, Germany. Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group, Department of Geography, Valencia University, Blasco Ibanez, 28, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 338 - 350, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0022
Scientific Paper, English

Roberto Corona, Nicola Montaldo: On the transpiration of wild olives under water-limited conditions in a heterogeneous ecosystem with shallow soil over fractured rock

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  • Mediterranean ecosystems are typically heterogeneous and savanna-like, with trees and grass competing for water use. By measuring sap flow, we estimated high transpiration of wild olive, a common Mediterranean tree, in Sardinia despite dry conditions. This estimate agrees with independent estimates of tree transpiration based on energy balance, highlighting the wild olive’s strong tolerance of dry conditions. The wild olive can develop an adaptation strategy to tolerate dry conditions. In this Sardinian case study, the wild olive grew in shallow soil, and the tree roots expanded into the underlying fractured basalt. The trees survived in dry periods using water infiltrated during wet seasons into fractured rocks and held in soil pockets. We estimated a high upward vertical flux through the bottom soil layer from the underlying substrate, which reached 97% evapotranspiration in August 2011. The water taken up by tree roots from bedrock hollows is usually neglected in ecohydrological modeling.

    KEY WORDS: Evapotranspiration; Rock moisture; Water uptake; Sap flow; Energy balance.

    Address:
    - Roberto Corona, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile Ambientale e Architettura, Universita di Cagliari, Via Marengo, 3, I-09123 Cagliari, Italy. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+39-070-675-5318 Fax.: Email: roberto.corona@unica.it)
    - Nicola Montaldo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile Ambientale e Architettura, Universita di Cagliari, Via Marengo, 3, I-09123 Cagliari, Italy.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 351 - 358, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0031
Scientific Paper, English

Miroslav Fér, Radka Kodešová, Barbora Kalkušová, Aleš Klement, Antonín Nikodem: An empirical model for describing the influence of water content and concentration of sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic) in soil on the total net CO2 efflux

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  • The aim of the study was to describe the impact of the soil water content and sulfamethoxazole, SUL, (antibiotic) concentration in soil on the net CO2 efflux. Soil samples were taken from topsoils of a Haplic Fluvisol and Haplic Chernozem. Soil samples were packed into the steel cylinders. The net CO2 efflux was measured from these soil columns after application of fresh water or SUL solution at different soil water contents. The experiments were carried out in dark at 20°C. The trends in the net CO2 efflux varied for different treatments. While initially high values for water treatment exponentially decreased in time, values for solution treatment increased during the first 250–650 minutes and then decreased. The total net CO2 effluxes measured for 20 hours related to the soil water content followed the second order polynomial functions. The maximal values were measured for the soil water content of 0.15 cm3 cm–3 (Haplic Fluvisol with water or solution, Haplic Chernozem with solution) and 0.11 cm3 cm–3 (Haplic Chernozem with water). The ratios between values measured for solution and water at the same soil water contents exponentially increased with increasing SUL concentration in soils. This proved the increasing stimulative influence of SUL on soil microbial activity.

    KEY WORDS: Repacked soil columns; Antibiotics; Soil respiration; CO2 emission; Birch effect; CO2 efflux stimulation.

    Address:
    - Miroslav Fér, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Dept. of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16500 Prague 6, Czech Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420 2 24 38 27 57 Fax.: Email: mfer@af.czu.cz)
    - Radka Kodešová, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Dept. of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16500 Prague 6, Czech Republic.
    - Barbora Kalkušová, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Dept. of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16500 Prague 6, Czech Republic.
    - Aleš Klement, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Dept. of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16500 Prague 6, Czech Republic.
    - Antonín Nikodem, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Dept. of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16500 Prague 6, Czech Republic.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 359 - 367, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0034
Scientific Paper, English

Giora J. Kidron, Rafael Kronenfeld: Atmospheric humidity is unlikely to serve as an important water source for crustose soil lichens in the Tabernas Desert

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  • Dew is commonly regarded as an important water source for lichens. This is also the case for crustose lichens that are attached to the substrate, whether rocks or soil. While being verified during ample research on rock-dwelling lichens in the Negev, the findings from soil-dwelling lichens (lichen biocrusts) are not conclusive. In the Tabernas Desert, the soil surface is characterized by a lush cover of crustose lichens. These soil biocrusts (biological soil crusts) were reported to use dew for photosynthesis while, at the same time, it was also observed that these crustose chlorolichens are relatively non-wettable. In an attempt to explore the apparent controversy, two year-long meteorological data (minimum air temperature and relative humidity, RH), during which chlorolichens were thought to utilize dew for photosynthesis (2006–2007) were analyzed. The analysis includes a comparison to the meteorological conditions that prevailed in the Negev during 135 days of manual dew measurements. As found for the Negev, net photosynthesis by the chlorolichens is expected once the RH, as measured at the meteorological station, is ≥90% while vapor condensation (dew) is expected once RH is ≥95%. RH in the Negev was substantially higher than the average RH of 75.0–87.2% registered during the rainless days of 2006–2007 in the Tabernas, implying that RH in the Tabernas is too low to facilitate frequent dew formation and net photosynthesis by the lichens. Photosynthesis in the Tabernas is mainly confined to rainy periods, taking place either due to direct wetting by rain, or following vapor condensation from the subsurface (distillation). Our findings do not support the view that dew is an important water source for the establishment and growth of crustose soil lichens in the Tabernas. Moreover, the low RH in the Tabernas may also imply that dew may only have a very limited role in providing water to lithobionts in this ecosystem.

    KEY WORDS: Biocrust; Cyanobacteria; Distillation; Lithobionts; Respiration; Negev Desert.

    Address:
    - Giora J. Kidron, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University, Givat Ram Campus, Jerusalem 91904, Israel. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+ 972-544-967-271 Fax.: +972-2-566-2581 Email: kidron@mail.huji.ac.il)
    - Rafael Kronenfeld, Meteorological unit, Israel Meteorological Service, Kibbutz Sede Boqer 84993, Israel.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 368 - 381, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0028
Scientific Paper, English

Adriana Leštianska, Peter Fleischer Jr., Peter Fleischer, Katarína Merganičová, Katarína Střelcová: Interspecific variation in growth and tree water status of conifers under water-limited conditions

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  • We monitored seasonal dynamics of stem water status of four coniferous species (Abies alba, Larix decidua, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris) planted at the Borová hora Arboretum (300 m a.s.l., Zvolen valley, Central Slovakia) beyond their ecological and production optima, in the region with warmer and drier climate compared to the sites of their origin. Species-specific stem water deficit and maximum daily shrinkage were extracted from diurnal band dendrometer records of stem circumference recorded by digital band dendrometers DRL26 installed on five trees per species, and correlations with environmental variables were analysed. The seasonal stem circumference increment of all tree species was higher in 2017 than in the drier and hotter year of 2018. The greatest seasonal stem circumference increment in the observed periods of 2017 and 2018 was observed for A. alba and P. sylvestris, respectively. The highest and lowest values of daily and seasonal stem water deficit were observed for L. decidua and A. alba, respectively. The analysis of trees' short-term response to extreme climate events seems to be the promising and suitable method for detecting tree species tolerance towards drought.

    KEY WORDS: Dendrometer; Circumference changes; Stem water deficit; Drought; Stem shrinkage; Wavelet analysis.

    Address:
    - Adriana Leštianska, Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 45 52 06 268 Fax.: Email: adriana.lestianska@tuzvo.sk)
    - Peter Fleischer Jr., Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia. Institute of Forest Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Štúrova 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia.
    - Peter Fleischer, Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia.
    - Katarína Merganičová, Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 16500 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    - Katarína Střelcová, Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 382 - 391, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0030
Scientific Paper, English

H.I.G.S. Piyaruwan, P.K.S.C. Jayasinghe, D.A.L. Leelamanie: Water repellency in eucalyptus and pine plantation forest soils and its relation to groundwater levels estimated with multi-temporal modeling

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  • Water repellency makes soils capable of resisting to the penetration of water applied on the surface and inflict various influences on groundwater. The objectives of the present study were to identify the water repellency under pine and eucalyptus plantations, to determine social impacts of water level changes, to find possible changes in groundwater levels in the surrounding areas during the past four decades, and to relate water repellent characteristics of soils with the groundwater level changes. The study was conducted in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis) and pine (Pinus caribaea) plantation forests located in Upcountry intermediate zone, Sri Lanka. Each land was separated into three blocks (B1, B2, B3) based on the slope. Water repellency was measured with water drop penetration time (WDPT) and contact angle. The water entry value was estimated with the pressure head method. Interconnected social impacts was examined using a questionnaire based survey. Groundwater levels from 1980 to present were modeled with remotely sensed information. Both eucalyptus and pine forest soils showed water repellency, which decreased with increasing soil depth. Eucalyptus soils showed highly hydrophobic conditions on the surface (WDPT>7200 s). Ponding depths required for entry of water into the soil in eucalyptus soils was 4.6–5.3 cm, whereas that of pine soils was 1.5–4.0 cm, although achieving these levels would be difficult considering the steep slopes. Contact angle showed positive logarithmic correlation with water entry value. The people living in the surrounding areas expressed less water availability for their domestic purposes, decreased water level in household wells, and drying up of natural water resources at present compared with 1980s. Modelling with remotely sensed thematic maps confirmed that the groundwater levels in both areas has decreased over the time. It indicated that the eucalyptus and pine vegetation have created unfavorable conditions in regard with water entry and groundwater recharge. Proper attention from the responsible authorities will be essential to prevent the adverse impacts of on groundwater resources.

    KEY WORDS: Eucalyptus grandis; Groundwater modeling; Pinus caribaea; Water repellency; Water entry value.

    Address:
    - H.I.G.S. Piyaruwan, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya 81100, Sri Lanka.
    - P.K.S.C. Jayasinghe, Department of Information and Communication Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Ruhuna, Karagoda-Uyangoda, Kamburupitiya 81100, Sri Lanka.
    - D.A.L. Leelamanie, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya 81100, Sri Lanka. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+94-71-861-4380 Fax.: +94-41-2292384 Email: leelamanie@soil.ruh.ac.lk; leelamaniee@yahoo.co.uk)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 392 - 403, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0035
Scientific Paper, English

Nasrollah Sepehrnia, Susanne K. Woche, Marc-O. Goebel, Jörg Bachmann: Development of a universal microinfiltrometer to estimate extent and persistence of soil water repellency as a function of capillary pressure and interface chemical composition

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  • Microinfiltrometers to assess soil water repellency (SWR) are limited to small tension ranges and have different technical setups, hindering a comparison between results from different laboratories. Hence, a microinfiltrometer which considers various aspects like extent and persistence of SWR is needed. The technical update suggested here uses glass tubes (e.g., 3 mm inner diameter), a fabric of mesh size 15 μm around the tip to enable good contact between soil surface and tip, ultrapure degassed water, and an evaporation protection for tip and reservoir during long-term infiltration. The adjustment of a continuous range of pressures and tensions (i.e., +0.5 to –40 cm) was done using glass tubes of various lengths connected to the tip. Three soil samples with initial contact angles, CA, of 18°, 62°, and 91° after 25°C treatment were additionally treated at 80°C to increase SWR persistence and CA. The soil particle interface chemical composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hydrophysical properties evaluated included water and ethanol sorptivity as well as very important aspects of SWR, i.e. water drop penetration time, water repellency cessation time, repellency index, and modified repellency index. The results derived from the technically modified microinfiltrometer setup showed consistent differences between initial wettability and the water repellency cessation time as a parameter describing the development of SWR with time. The interface O/C ratio as derived from XPS data was negatively correlated with CA (p <0.05), thus proving the close relationship between interface chemistry and wettability. Our findings illustrated a strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.99, p < 0.05) between sorptivity and O/C ratio under –2 cm tension which can be considered as the universal tension for different aspects of SWR.

    KEY WORDS: Ethanol; Infiltration; Interface chemistry; Sorptivity; Thermal treatment; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Address:
    - Nasrollah Sepehrnia, Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4951176119250 Fax.: +49511762-5559 Email: sepehrnia@ifbk.uni-hannover.de)
    - Susanne K. Woche, Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany.
    - Marc-O. Goebel, Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany.
    - Jörg Bachmann, Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4, 2020, p. 404 - 410, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0018
Scientific Paper, English

Antoni M.C. Verdú, M. Teresa Mas, Ramon Josa, Marta Ginovart: The effect of a prototype hydromulch on soil water evaporation under controlled laboratory conditions

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  • Organic hydromulches can be an interesting alternative for weed control in perennial crops, but can also reduce soil water evaporation. To examine the effect of a hydromulch layer on soil water content in dry conditions laboratory experiments were conducted at constant 25°C, 40% air RH. Both for small soil containers with a short time course and for larger soil columns (with two sensors at depths of 6 cm and 11 cm) with a longer time course, the presence and also the thickness of hydromulch were significant factors for the temporal evolution of soil water content. Two distinct stages of the evaporation process, the first or initial stage and the last or final stage, were identified, analysed and compared for these experiments. General linear models performed on the soil water content temporal evolutions showed significant differences for the first and last stages at the top and bottom of the soil columns with and without hydromulch. Hydromulch application delayed the evaporation process in comparison with the control. Moreover, the hydromulch layer, which was tested for mechanical resistance to punching, offered enough resistance to prevent its perforation by the sprouts of weed rhizomes.

    KEY WORDS: Byproducts reuse; Punching resistance; Sandy loam soil; Water conservation; Weeds.

    Address:
    - Antoni M.C. Verdú, Department of Agri-Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/ Esteve Terradas 8, 08860-Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.
    - M. Teresa Mas, Department of Agri-Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/ Esteve Terradas 8, 08860-Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.
    - Ramon Josa, Department of Agri-Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/ Esteve Terradas 8, 08860-Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.
    - Marta Ginovart, Departament of Mathematics, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/ Esteve Terradas 8, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+34 935 521 133 Fax.: +34 935 521 122 Email: marta.ginovart@upc.edu)

     




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