J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 145 - 155, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0008
Scientific Paper, English
Hezi Yizhaq, Yosef Ashkenazy: Sand dune vegetation-biocrust interaction as a source of spatial heterogeneity
Full Text in PDF 58 DOWNLOADS
- Vegetation and biocrust play crucial roles in dune stability and mobility, and their interaction can lead to
bistability, temporal oscillations, and hysteresis. We studied a two-dimensional (2D) mathematical model of vegetation
and biogenic crust cover dynamics on sand dunes. Under a certain parameter range, the space-independent version of the
model exhibited the bi-stability of an oscillatory state and a steady state, and we studied the 2D dynamics of the model
under these parameters. The patterns developed by the 2D model showed a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and
complexity depending on the initial conditions and on the state type across the front. The results suggest that spatial
heterogeneity and complexity can evolve from the intrinsic dynamics between vegetation and biocrust, even without
natural geodiversity and spatiotemporal climate fluctuations. In the real world, these two types of intrinsic and extrinsic
heterogeneity processes interact such that it is difficult to distinguish between them.
KEY WORDS: Sand dunes; Biocrust; Bistability; Relaxation oscillations; Drift potential; Mathematical modeling.
- Hezi Yizhaq, Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Ben-Gurion University, Sede Boqer Campus, 84990, Israel. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: email@example.com)
- Yosef Ashkenazy, Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Ben-Gurion University, Sede Boqer Campus, 84990, Israel.
J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 156 - 169, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0007
Scientific Paper, English
Katarzyna Baran-Gurgul: The spatial and temporal variability of hydrological drought in the Polish
Full Text in PDF 61 DOWNLOADS
- The aim of the study was to evaluate the climate and geographic factors controlling the hydrological drought
of the rivers located in the Upper Vistula catchment in the Polish Carpathians. Drought was identified based on the daily
flow (based on water stage measered once a day at 6 UTC) series dating from between 1975 and 2019 at 49 gauging
cross-sections. Four physico-geographical regions were identified in the Polish Carpathians and spatial variabilities of
the basic drought characteristics were developed within these regions. Such spatial distributions were treated as maps
indicating drought hazard areas in the region. In addition, an analysis was undertaken to study the seasonality of the start
and end times of the drought (all in the multi-annual period), the longest duration of droughts, the droughts of the highest
volume in multi-annual period, as well as the number of drought days. Multi-annual variability of the number of drought
days was also analysed.
The results suggest that droughts in the Polish Carpathians are events characteristic of summer and autumn, whereas
in the Tatra Mountains and the Podhale region - of autumn and winter. The greatest hazard of a prolonged and highvolume
drought occurs in the Podhale region and the Tatra Mountains, while the lowest hazard is observed in the
Bieszczady Mountains and the eastern part of the studied area.
KEY WORDS: Hydrological drought; Long-term variability; Seasonal variability; Vistula, the Polish Carpathian; Drought hazard.
- Katarzyna Baran-Gurgul, Department of Geoengineering and Water Management, Faculty of Environmental and Power Engineering, Cracow University of
Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155, Cracow, Poland. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: Katarzyna.Baran-Gurgul@pk.edu.pl)
J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 170 - 177, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0006
Scientific Paper, English
Roza Ghahramani Jajin, Atabak Feizi, Mohammad Ghorbanpour: Experimental investigation of hydrophobic bentonite effects on reducing
evaporation from water surfaces
Full Text in PDF 37 DOWNLOADS
- In recent years, due to the occurrence of water shortage and drought problems, particularly in arid and semiarid
regions of the world, new methods to reduce evaporation from the surface of dam reservoirs, lakes, and other waterfree
surfaces are investigated. This study aimed to use hydrophobic bentonite to reduce water evaporation from water
surfaces, on a laboratory scale, and field conditions for the first time. Bentonite initially became hydrophobic by stearic
acid (SA). Under such conditions, hydrophobic bentonite floats on the surface of water and forms a thin coating layer.
The produced hydrophobic bentonite had a contact angle of 150°, indicating its superhydrophobicity. Evaporation reduction
was measured under laboratory and field conditions and it was compared to hexadecanol as the reference material.
The results demonstrated that the hydrophobic bentonite efficiency under laboratory conditions was similar to that of
hexadecanol and prevented water evaporation by 36%. However, under field conditions, hydrophobic bentonite and hexadecanol
efficiencies were 40% and 23% to reduce evaporation for 30 days, respectively. In terms of stability, hexadecanol
needed to be re-injected after three days, while hydrophobic bentonite was stable and remained on the surface
for more than 100 days under laboratory conditions and for more than 15 days under field conditions without needing reinjection.
This coverage with method can be used to reduce evaporation from lakes, tanks, and reservoirs of small dams.
KEY WORDS: Water evaporation; Water surface; Hydrophobic bentonite; Hexadecanol monolayer.
- Roza Ghahramani Jajin, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil-Iran.
- Atabak Feizi, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. (Corresponding author. Tel.:(+98) 9126972187 Fax.: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
- Mohammad Ghorbanpour, Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical and Engineering Faculty, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 178 - 194, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0009
Scientific Paper, English
Matteo Pesce, Jost von Hardenberg, Pierluigi Claps, Alberto Viglione: Correlation between climate and flood indices in Northwestern Italy at
different temporal scales
Full Text in PDF 39 DOWNLOADS
- The occurrence of river floods is strongly related to specific climatic conditions that favor extreme
precipitation events leading to catchment saturation. Although the impact of precipitation and temperature patterns on
river flows is a well discussed topic in hydrology, few studies have focused on the relationship between peak discharges
and standard Climate Change Indices (ETCCDI) of precipitation and temperature, widely used in climate research. It is
of interest to evaluate whether these indices are relevant for characterizing and predicting floods in the Alpine area. In
this study, a correlation analysis of the ETCCDI indices annual time series and annual maximum flows is presented for
the Piedmont Region, in North-Western Italy. Spearman’s rank correlation is used to determine which ETCCDI indices
are temporally correlated with maximum discharges, allowing to hypothesize which climate drivers better explain the
interannual variability of floods. Moreover, the influence of climate (decadal) variability on the tendency of annual
maximum discharges is examined by spatially correlating temporal trends of climate indices with temporal trends of the
discharge series in the last twenty years, calculated using the Theil-Sen slope estimator. Results highlight that, while
extreme precipitation indices are highly correlated with extreme discharges at the annual timescale, with different indices
that are consistent with catchment size, the decadal tendencies of extreme discharges may be better explained by the
decadal tendencies of the total annual precipitation over the study area. This suggests that future projections of the annual
precipitation available from climate models simulations, whose reliability is higher compared to precipitation extremes,
may be used as covariates for non-stationary flood frequency analysis.
KEY WORDS: Flood tendency; ETCCDI indices; Flood and climate variability.
- Matteo Pesce, Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Turin, Italy. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+39 0110905606 / 5606 Fax.: Email: email@example.com)
- Jost von Hardenberg, Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Turin, Italy.
- Pierluigi Claps, Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Turin, Italy.
- Alberto Viglione, Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Turin, Italy.
J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 195 - 212, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0012
Scientific Paper, English
Salman Beg, Deo Raj Kaushal: Performance analysis of rectangular SIT (sediment invert trap) for stormwater
Full Text in PDF 35 DOWNLOADS
- Deposition of solid particles in the stormwater sewers reduces the discharging capacity, causing inundation. A
sediment invert trap (SIT) is an option that can be installed at the bottom of the stormwater sewer drain to intercept the
flowing solid particles. In the present study performance of rectangular SIT were analyzed experimentally and
computationally. Variation of particle trapping efficiency of rectangular SIT fitted at the bottom of the open channel
flume has been studied under the interpretation of invert trap depth, flow depth, particle size, particle shape, and slot
width. To predict the flow field and trap efficiency of a rectangular invert trap, 2D-VOF-DPM-CFD modelling has been
carried out using ANSYS Fluent 2020 R1 software. For velocity field determination, the volume of fluid (VOF) model
was used along with realizable k-є turbulence model. To predict particle trap efficiency, stochastic discrete phase model
(DPM) was utilized. From experimental study and CFD modeling, it has been found that the particle trap efficiency of
rectangular invert trap varied with change in the depth of invert trap, sediment size, shape factor, depth of flow and slot
width. Consideration of particle shape in terms of shape factor in the modeling of solid-phase through DPM validated the
CFD predicted results with those obtained experimentally with mean absolute percent error (MAPE) of 2.68%, 3.99%
and 6.6% for sewer solid size ranges SS1, SS2, and SS3 respectively at all flow depths for both slot widths considered in
KEY WORDS: Sediment invert trap; Trap efficiency; Shape factor; Volume of fluid model; Discrete phase model.
- Salman Beg, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas-110016, New Delhi, India.
- Deo Raj Kaushal, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas-110016, New Delhi, India. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+91-11-2659 1216 Fax.: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 213 - 221, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0010
Scientific Paper, English
Tomas Kozel, Milos Stary: Adaptive stochastic management of the storage function for a large, open
reservoir using learned fuzzy models
Full Text in PDF 23 DOWNLOADS
- The design and evaluation of algorithms for adaptive stochastic control of the reservoir function of a water
reservoir using an artificial intelligence method (learned fuzzy model) are described in this article. This procedure was
tested on the Vranov reservoir (Czech Republic). Stochastic model results were compared with the results of
deterministic management obtained using the method of classical optimisation (differential evolution). The models used
for controlling of reservoir outflow used single quantile from flow duration curve values or combinations of quantile
values from flow duration curve for determination of controlled outflow. Both methods were also tested on forecast data
from real series (100% forecast). Finally, the results of the dispatcher graph, adaptive deterministic control and adaptive
stochastic control were compared. Achieved results of adaptive stochastic management were better than results provided
by dispatcher graph and provide inspiration for continuing research in the field.
KEY WORDS: Stochastic; Artificial intelligence; Storage function; Optimisation.
- Tomas Kozel, Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Landscape Water Management, Veveří 331/95, Brno, Czech
Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: email@example.com)
- Milos Stary, Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Landscape Water Management, Veveří 331/95, Brno, Czech
J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 222 - 233, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0011
Scientific Paper, English
Mahsa Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ali Banihashemi: Analytical and numerical investigation of mechanical energy balance and
energy loss of three-dimensional steady turbulent flows in open-channels
Full Text in PDF 24 DOWNLOADS
- Study about the mechanical energy balance and the energy loss of 3-D turbulent flows in open-channels has
its own complexities. The governing equation of the mechanical energy in turbulent flows has been previously known
and includes turbulence parameters that their calculations or measurements are not easy. In this study, a form of the total
mechanical energy equation that leads to a number of significant physical insights is analytically investigated, from
which analytical relationships for the energy loss estimation in 3-D turbulent flows are defined. The effect of different
turbulence parameters is reflected on the new relationships and analyzed by equalizations replacing unknown
correlations with closure approximations using the numerical turbulence simulation. In order to investigate the
application of the analytical relationships, numerical simulations are performed by using OpenFOAM software to solve
the Navier-Stokes equations with the RSM turbulence model in open-channels with different geometries. Then, the
contribution of the turbulence parameters to the total mechanical energy balance is evaluated in uniform and nonuniform
turbulent flows and their difference is analyzed, that leads to identify the parameters affecting the friction and
local losses. The results demonstrate that the magnitudes of the turbulent diffusion, the work done by the viscous stresses
pertaining to the mean motion and the viscous diffusion of the turbulence energy are substantially smaller than the other
terms of the total energy equation for turbulent flows in open-channels with different geometries, while the effect of the
variations of the turbulence kinetic energy and the work done by the turbulence stresses, that has not been considered in
the previous mechanical energy equations, is more important in complex flows. From a practical viewpoint, in order to
study the details of the total mechanical energy balance and the energy loss in 3-D turbulent flows with the presence of
the secondary currents, the proposed method can be useful.
KEY WORDS: Mechanical energy equation; Energy loss; Turbulent flow; Analytical relationships; Numerical simulation.
- Mahsa Mahmoudi, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
- Mohammad Ali Banihashemi, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 234 - 243, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0005
Scientific Paper, English
Vincenzo Bagarello, Gaetano Caltabellotta, Massimo Iovino: Estimation of hydrodynamic properties of a sandy-loam soil by two analysis
methods of single-ring infiltration data
Full Text in PDF 42 DOWNLOADS
- Beerkan infiltration runs could provide an incomplete description of infiltration with reference to either the
near steady-state or the transient stages. In particular, the process could still be in the transient stage at the end of the run
or some transient infiltration data might be loss. The Wu1 method and the BEST-steady algorithm can be applied to
derive soil hydrodynamic parameters even under these circumstances. Therefore, a soil dataset could be developed using
two different data analysis methods. The hypothesis that the Wu1 method and BEST-steady yield similar predictions of
the soil parameters when they are applied to the same infiltration curve was tested in this investigation. For a sandy-loam
soil, BEST-steady yielded higher saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks, microscopic pore radius, λm, and depth of the
wetting front at the end of the run, dwf, and lower macroscopic capillary length, λc, as compared with the Wu1 method.
Two corresponding means differed by 1.2–1.4 times, depending on the variable, and the differences appeared overall
from moderate to relatively appreciable, that is neither too high nor negligible in any circumstance, according to some
literature suggestions. Two estimates of Ks were similar (difference by < 25%) when the gravity-driven vertical flow and
the lateral capillary components represented the 71–89% of total infiltration. In conclusion, the two methods of data
analysis do not generally yield the same predictions of soil hydrodynamic parameters when they are applied to the same
infiltration curve. However, it seems possible to establish what are the conditions making the two methods similar.
KEY WORDS: Soil hydrodynamic properties; beerkan infiltration run; data analysis methods; BEST methodology; Wu1
- Vincenzo Bagarello, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy, Viale delle Scienze, Building 4, 90128, Palermo, Italy. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+39 09123897053 Fax.: Email: email@example.com)
- Gaetano Caltabellotta, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy, Viale delle Scienze, Building 4, 90128, Palermo, Italy.
- Massimo Iovino, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy, Viale delle Scienze, Building 4, 90128, Palermo, Italy.
J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 244 - 256, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0013
Scientific Paper, English
Ruan G.S. Gomes, Guilherme J.C. Gomes, Eurípedes A. Vargas Jr., Martinus Th. van Genuchten, Joao T.M.G. Pinto, Felipe A. Rosa: Field-scale assessment of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of residual soils in southeastern Brazil
Full Text in PDF 19 DOWNLOADS
- Field tests were carried out to estimate effective unsaturated soil hydraulic properties of layered residual soils in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Data of this type are important for understanding the initiation of rainstorm-induced soil landslides, which often occur in the state of Rio de Janeiro as well as other areas having similar geologic settings and climate conditions. Tests were carried out using a simplified field approach, referred to as the Monitored Infiltration Test, which requires only a tensiometer to measure pressure heads below the wetting front, triggered by flow from a Mariotte bottle which maintains a constant pressure at the top edge of the soil profile. The data can then be analyzed by numerical inversion using the HYDRUS-2D software package. The test is relatively fast since no steady-state flow conditions are needed, and versatile since the test can be carried out quickly on steep slopes with the help of a manual auger. Soil water retention and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions were obtained for a range of young, mature and saprolitic residual soils. The effective hydraulic properties of the distinct residual soil layers can be quite large, reflecting a need to provide a careful analysis of field-scale hydraulic heterogeneity in geotechnical analyses.
KEY WORDS: Residual soils; Unsaturated soil hydraulic properties; Field infiltration tests; HYDRUS-2D.
- Ruan G.S. Gomes, Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
- Guilherme J.C. Gomes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. Graduate Program in Geotechnics, School of Mines, Federal University of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil.
- Eurípedes A. Vargas Jr., Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
- Martinus Th. van Genuchten, Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Netherlands. Department of Nuclear Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
- Joao T.M.G. Pinto, Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
- Felipe A. Rosa, Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 2, 2022, p. 257 - 268, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0001
Scientific Paper, English
Thaís M. Silveira, Fernanda Hoerlle, Adriano S. Rocha, Maira C.O Lima, Mateus G. Ramirez, Elizabeth M. Pontedeiro, Martinus Th. van Genuchten, Daniel O.A. Cruz, Paulo Couto: Effects of carbonated water injection on the pore system of a carbonate rock
Full Text in PDF 30 DOWNLOADS
- CO2 injection is a well-known Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technique that has been used for years to
improve oil extraction from carbonate rock and other oil reservoirs. Optimal functioning of CO2 injection requires a
thorough understanding of how this method affects the petrophysical properties of the rocks. We evaluated pore-scale
changes in these properties, notably porosity and absolute permeability, following injection of CO2-saturated water in
two coquina outcrop samples from the Morro do Chaves Formation in Brazil. The coquinas are close analogues of Presalt
oil reservoirs off the coast of southern Brazil. The effects of carbonated water injection were evaluated using a series
of experimental and numerical steps before and after coreflooding: cleaning, basic petrophysics, microtomography
(microCT) imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses, and pore network modeling (PNM). Our study was
motivated by an earlier experiment which did not show the development of a wormhole in the center of the sample, with
a concomitant increase in permeability of the coquina as often noted in the literature. We instead observed a substantial
decrease in the absolute permeability (between 71 and 77%), but with little effect on the porosity and no wormhole
formation. While all tests were carried out on both samples, here we present a comprehensive analysis for one of the
samples to illustrate changes at the pore network level. Different techniques were used for the pore-scale analyses,
including pore network modeling using PoreStudio, and software developed by the authors to enable a statistical analysis
of the pore network. Results provided much insight in how injected carbonated water affects the pore network of
KEY WORDS: Carbonate rocks; Coreflooding; Pore Size Distribution; Pore Network Analysis; PoreStudio.
- Thaís M. Silveira, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
- Fernanda Hoerlle, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
- Adriano S. Rocha, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
- Maira C.O Lima, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
- Mateus G. Ramirez, Department of Mechanical Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
- Elizabeth M. Pontedeiro, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
- Martinus Th. van Genuchten, Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands. Center for Environmental Studies, CEA, Sao Paulo State University, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: email@example.com)
- Daniel O.A. Cruz, Department of Mechanical Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
- Paulo Couto, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.