Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 211 - 222, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0021
Scientific Paper, English

Ahmed S. Foda, Yehya E. Imam, Abd Allah S. Bazaraa, Emad H. Imam: Three-dimensional numerical study of submerged spatial hydraulic jumps

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  • A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate submerged spatial hydraulic jumps (SSHJ) downstream of a symmetric vent that discharges into a wider channel. Simulations were carried out for different aspect ratios of the vent, expansion ratios of vent width to downstream channel width, tailwater depth, and inlet Froude number. Depending on these factors, simulations indicated the formation of steady asymmetric SSHJ, oscillatory asymmetric SSHJ, and steady symmetric SSHJ, consistent with results of previous experimental studies. The model reproduced observed depth downstream of vent, jump length, and velocity profiles along channel centerline for steady symmetric SSHJ. For oscillatory asymmetric SSHJ, simulated oscillation frequencies had Strouhal numbers that varied with expansion ratio and ranged between 0.003 and 0.015. With piers downstream of the vent, oscillatory SSHJ continued to exhibit jet deflections when pier length was relatively short (≲0.2 of jump length) but became steady asymmetric for longer piers.

    KEY WORDS: Abrupt channel expansion; Submerged spatial hydraulic jump; Asymmetric jump; Oscillatory jump; Computational fluid dynamics.

    Address:
    - Ahmed S. Foda, Department of Irrigation and Hydraulics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: a.foda@tamcon-eg.com)
    - Yehya E. Imam, Department of Irrigation and Hydraulics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. Environmental Engineering Program, University of Science and Technology, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt.
    - Abd Allah S. Bazaraa, Department of Irrigation and Hydraulics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
    - Emad H. Imam, Department of Construction Engineering, American University in Cairo, Giza, Egypt.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 223 - 230, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0019
Scientific Paper, English

Mikolas Kesely: A modification of predictive three-component model for turbulent flows of complex slurries in pipelines based on experimental results

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  • The paper describes a mathematical and physical modelling of flow of complex slurries in pipelines, i.e. a flow of slurries composed of solids covering a very broad range of particle sizes that overlaps more than one flow patterns – non-Newtonian, pseudohomogeneous, heterogeneous and fully-stratified. A typical examples are residual products (“tailings”) from mining industry with normal average particle sizes of 20 to 100 μm or more. Experimental results of flows of complex slurries composing of non-Newtonian carrier fluid and three fractions of glass particles in 50 mm pipe are presented. Depending on the particle size, particles show different flow patterns and therefore considerable differences in pressure drops. Fine particles tend behave as a homogeneous matter, while coarser particles exhibit heterogeneous behaviour and even coarser particles form a sliding bed. A mathematical 3-component predictive model for turbulent flow of complex slurries is presented based on well-established semi-empirical formulae developed originally for flows with Newtonian carrier. The predicted values of pressure drops show very reasonable agreement with experimental results and indicate suitability of the model for engineering practice.

    KEY WORDS: Non-Newtonian; Suspension; Turbulence; Complex slurries; Tailings; Heterogeneous.

    Address:
    - Mikolas Kesely, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 160 29 Prague 6, Czech Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420 721 301 791 Fax.: Email: mikolas.kesely@fsv.cvut.cz)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 231 - 241, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0026
Scientific Paper, English

Semire Oguzhan, Aysegul Ozgenc Aksoy: Experimental investigation of the effect of vegetation on dam break flood waves

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  • Dams have an important role in the industrial development of countries. Irrespective of the reason for dam break, the flood can cause devastating disasters with loss of life and property especially in densely populated areas. In this study, the effects of the vegetation on the flood wave propagation in case of dam break were investigated experimentally by using the distorted physical model of Ürkmez Dam. The horizontal and vertical scales of the distorted physical model are 1/150 and 1/30, respectively. The dam break scenarios were achieved by means of a gate of rectangular and triangular shape. The results obtained from experiments performed with vegetation were compared and interpreted with those obtained from experiments at which the vegetation configuration was absent. The analysis of the experimental data showed that the presence of vegetation causes a significant decrease in water depths as the flood wave propagates to the downstream and greatly reduces its impact on the settlements. It is also revealed that dam break shape plays an important role in temporal variation of flood wave.

    KEY WORDS: Dam break; Flood wave; Physical model; Urkmez Dam; Vegetation effect.

    Address:
    - Semire Oguzhan, Department of Civil Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160, Buca, Izmir, Turkey.
    - Aysegul Ozgenc Aksoy, Department of Civil Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160, Buca, Izmir, Turkey. (Corresponding author. Tel.:0090-232-3017019 Fax.: Email: aysegul.ozgenc@deu.edu.tr)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 242 - 248, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0020
Scientific Paper, English

Peng Zhang, Shengfa Yang, Jiang Hu, Wenjie Li, Xuhui Fu, Danxun Li: A new method for extracting spanwise vortex from 2D particle image velocimetry data in open-channel flow

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  • The two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) data are inevitably contaminated by noise due to various imperfections in instrumentation or algorithm, based on which the well-established vortex identification methods often yield noise or incomplete vortex structure with a jagged boundary. To make up this deficiency, a novel method was proposed in this paper and the efficiency of the new method was demonstrated by its applications in extracting the twodimensional spanwise vortex structures from 2D PIV data in open-channel flows. The new method takes up a single vortex structure by combining model matching and vorticity filtering, and successfully locates the vortex core and draws a streamlined vortex boundary. The new method shows promise as being more effective than commonly used schemes in open-channel flow applications.

    KEY WORDS: Vortex identification; Spanwise vortex; Vorticity filtering; Open-channel flow.

    Address:
    - Peng Zhang, State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+86 01062788532 Fax.: +86 01062788532 Email: zpcquc@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn)
    - Shengfa Yang, National Inland Waterway Regulation Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China.
    - Jiang Hu, National Inland Waterway Regulation Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China.
    - Wenjie Li, National Inland Waterway Regulation Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China.
    - Xuhui Fu, National Inland Waterway Regulation Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China.
    - Danxun Li, State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 249 - 259, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0027
Scientific Paper, English

Tong Liu, He Qing Huang, Ming an Shao, Jiong Cheng, Xiang Dong Li, Jian Hua Lu: Integrated assessment of climate and human contributions to variations in streamflow in the Ten Great Gullies Basin of the Upper Yellow River, China

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  • Climate change and human activity are two linked factors that alter the spatiotemporal distribution of the available water. Assessing the relative contribution of the two factors on runoff changes can help the planners and managers to better formulate strategies and policies regarding regional water resources. In this work, using two typical sub-basins of the Yellow River as the study area, we first detected the trend and the breakpoint in the annual streamflow data with the Pettitt test during the period 1964–2011. Next, a Budyko-based climate elasticity model and a monthly hydrological model were employed as an integrated method to distinguish the relative contributions of climate change and human activities to the long-term changes in runoff. The results showed that a significant decline in the annual runoff occurred in the two sub-basins during the study period, and the abrupt change point in the annual runoff at the two subbasins both occurred in 1997. The conceptual hydrological model performed well in reproducing monthly runoff time series at the two sub-basins. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) between observed and simulated runoff during the validation period exceeds 0.83 for the two sub-basins. Climate elasticity method and hydrological model give consistent attribution results: human activities are the major drivers responsible for the decreased annual runoff in the Ten Great Gullies Basin. The relative contributions of climate change and human activities to the changes in the annual runoff were 22–32% and 68–78%, respectively.

    KEY WORDS: Climate variability; Human activity; Quantitative method; Streamflow change; Ten Great Gullies Basin.

    Address:
    - Tong Liu, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-Environmental Pollution Control and Management, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental Science and Technology, Guangzhou, 510650, China.
    - He Qing Huang, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+86 010 64888068 Fax.: +86 010 64888068 Email: h1q2huang6@126.com)
    - Ming an Shao, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.
    - Jiong Cheng, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-Environmental Pollution Control and Management, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental Science and Technology, Guangzhou, 510650, China.
    - Xiang Dong Li, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-Environmental Pollution Control and Management, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental Science and Technology, Guangzhou, 510650, China.
    - Jian Hua Lu, Guangdong Provincial Bioengineering Institute (Guangzhou Sugarcane Industry Research Institute), Guangdong Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Improvement and Biorefinery, Guangzhou 510316, China.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 260 - 270, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0024
Scientific Paper, English

Mariusz Ptak, Mariusz Sojka, Bogumił Nowak: Effect of climate warming on a change in thermal and ice conditions in the largest lake in Poland – Lake Śniardwy

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  • Lake Śniardwy is the largest among more than 7000 Polish lakes. So far, it has not been a subject of detailed investigations concerning long-term changes in water temperature or ice regime. A considerable change in thermal and ice conditions has been observed in the period 1972–2019. Mean annual water temperature increased by 0.44°C dec–1 on average, and was higher than an increase in air temperature (0.33°C dec–1). In the monthly cycle, the most dynamic changes occurred in April (0.77°C dec–1). In the case of ice cover, it appeared increasingly later (5.3 days dec–1), and disappeared earlier (3.0 days dec–1). The thickness of ice cover also decreased (2.4 cm dec–1). Statistical analysis by means of a Pettitt test showed that the critical moment for the transformations of the thermal and ice regime was the end of the 1980’s. In addition to the obvious relations with air temperature for both characteristics, it was evidenced that the occurrence of ice cover depended on wind speed and snow cover. The recorded changes in the case of Lake Śniardwy are considered unfavourable, and their consequences will affect the course of physical, chemical, and biological processes in the largest lake in Poland.

    KEY WORDS: Lakes; Water temperature; Air temperature; Ice cover; Climate change; Central Europe.

    Address:
    - Mariusz Ptak, Department of Hydrology and Water Management, Adam Mickiewicz University, Krygowskiego 10, 61-680 Poznań, Poland. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: marp114@wp.pl)
    - Mariusz Sojka, Institute of Land Improvement, Environmental Development and Geodesy, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Spatial Management, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Piątkowska 94, 60-649 Poznań, Poland.
    - Bogumił Nowak, Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute, ul. Podleśna 61, 01-673 Warszawa, Poland.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 271 - 278, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0023
Scientific Paper, English

Ján Horák, Dušan Igaz, Elena Aydin, Vladimír Šimanský, Natalya Buchkina, Eugene Balashov: Changes in direct CO2 and N2O emissions from a loam Haplic Luvisol under conventional moldboard and reduced tillage during growing season and post-harvest period of red clover

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  • The objectives of the study were to: (1) assess the strength of associations of direct CO2 and N2O emissions with the seasonal variations in the relevant soil properties under both tillage systems; 2) evaluate how CT and RT affect magnitudes of seasonal CO2 and N2O fluxes from soil. Field studies were carried out on plots for conventional tillage (up to 0.22–0.25 m) and reduced tillage (up to 0.10–0.12 m) during the growing season and post-harvest period of red clover. The results showed that daily CO2 emissions significantly correlated only with soil temperature during the growing season under conventional and reduced tillage. Soil temperature demonstrated its highest influence on daily N2O emissions only at the beginning of the growing season in both tillage systems. There were no significant inter-system differences in daily CO2 and N2O emissions from soil during the entire period of observations. Over the duration of post-harvest period, water-filled pore space was a better predictor of daily CO2 emissions from soils under CT and RT. The conventional and reduced tillage did not cause significant differences in cumulative N2O and CO2 fluxes from soil.

    KEY WORDS: Tillage systems; Soil organic matter; Temperature; Moisture content; Water-filled pore space; CO2 and N2O emissions.

    Address:
    - Ján Horák, Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, Hospodárska 7, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421376415244 Fax.: Email: jan.horak@uniag.sk)
    - Dušan Igaz, Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, Hospodárska 7, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia.
    - Elena Aydin, Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, Hospodárska 7, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia.
    - Vladimír Šimanský, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia.
    - Natalya Buchkina, Department of Soil Physics, Physical Chemistry and Biophysics, Agrophysical Research Institute, Grazhdansky pr. 14, 195220 St. Peters-burg, Russia.
    - Eugene Balashov, Department of Soil Physics, Physical Chemistry and Biophysics, Agrophysical Research Institute, Grazhdansky pr. 14, 195220 St. Peters-burg, Russia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 279 - 284, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0025
Scientific Paper, English

Rongliang Jia, Yanhong Gao, Lichao Liu, Haotian Yang, Yang Zhao: Effect of sand burial on the subcritical water repellency of a dominant moss crust in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, Northern China

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  • Sand burial is a ubiquitous disturbance that influences the ecological and hydrological properties of moss crusts in many sandy desert areas. There is little available information regarding the effect of sand burial on the water repellency (WR) of moss crusts in desert areas. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of sand burial (sand depths of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 10 mm) followed by three simulated precipitation regimes (through applying 4 and 6 mm, 2 and 3 mm, and 1 and 1.5 mm of distilled water at 8-day intervals in spring and autumn, respectively) on the WR of a widespread moss crust dominated by Bryum argenteum Hedw. in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, China. The results showed moss crust WR remained subcritical during the whole experiment, and that it considerably decreased immediately after sand burial, even though the values of WR were significantly higher in autumn than those in spring under the same treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the depth threshold (TD) values for sand burials that reduced WR to zero were 1 and 2 mm in spring and autumn, respectively. After a recovery period of nearly one-season (72 days), the WR of the moss crust significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, sand burial had two separate effects on moss crust WR. Specifically, shallower sand burial (burial depth less than 0.5 mm) increased moss crust WR, whereas deeper sand burial (burial depth exceeds 0.5 mm) decreased it. The TD values also significantly increased to 2 and 4 mm in spring and autumn, respectively. These findings about the effects of sand burial on moss crust WR provide additional information that can be used to better understand the influence of sand burial on moss crust colonization and maintenance in arid sandburial- stressed ecosystems, and to help explain why there are some contrasting viewpoints on biocrust WR.

    KEY WORDS: Water repellency; Sand burial; Moss crust; Precipitation.

    Address:
    - Rongliang Jia, Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou 730000, China. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: rongliangjia@163.com)
    - Yanhong Gao, Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou 730000, China.
    - Lichao Liu, Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou 730000, China.
    - Haotian Yang, Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou 730000, China.
    - Yang Zhao, Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou 730000, China.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 285 - 292, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0013
Scientific Paper, English

Vesna Nikolić Jokanović, Tijana Vulević, Katarina Lazarević: Risk assessment of forest decline by application of geostatistics and multi-criteria analysis

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  • In this paper, the risk zone mapping of declining lowland forests belonging to „Morović“, management unit „Varadin-Županja“ (northern Serbia) is performed using geostatistics analysis. Based on the monitoring of groundwater level, the Kriging method has been performed for the spatial distribution of groundwater level for a multiyear period (2010–2013) – reference level and characteristic levels for the wettest and the driest year during the analyzed period. Risk assessment was determined by the variance of characteristics compared to reference levels. Then, multi-criteria decision analysis methods (AHP, PROMETHEE II) were applied to define the rank of each department (smaller forest management units) located in the research area. These analyses are very important because they enable to locate of the area with a high risk of forest decline and to rank departments using criteria: deviation from water level recorded during dry periods, species demand for water, conservation status and purpose of the unit (seed stands or technical wood). The proposed methodology is usable for the determination of the primary localities for the application of management measures conducting on the level of lower planned units (departments) and thus lead to the successful planning and more efficient forest management. Obtained results at the researched area showed that a negative influence on the watering regime has groundwater level decreasing compared to the reference level because it directly affects available water for the plants. Based on multicriteria analysis methods, it was deduced that the most endangered parts are located at the edge, while this risk is much lower in the central part of the management unit. A combination of applied methods (geostatistics and multicriteria analysis) is of great importance for forestry management.

    KEY WORDS: The risk from forest decline; Groundwater monitoring; Geostatistics analysis; Multi-criteria analysis.

    Address:
    - Vesna Nikolić Jokanović, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11030 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+ 381 11 3053846 Fax.: Email: vesna.nikolic@sfb.bg.ac.rs)
    - Tijana Vulević, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11030 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia.
    - Katarina Lazarević, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11030 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 3, 2020, p. 293 - 301, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0014
Scientific Paper, English

Giora J. Kidron, Abraham Starinsky: Lithobiont-dependent ionic composition in runoff water

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  • Rock dwelling organisms (lithobionts) such as cyanobacteria (prokaryotes) and chlorolichens (eukaryotes) abound in the Negev Desert, where they cover almost all calcareous bedrocks and rock particles (cobbles, boulders). In a small limestone watershed in the Negev Highlands, cyanobacteria inhabit the south-facing (SF) bedrocks, epilithic lichens (accompanied by endolithic lichens) inhabit the north-facing (NF) bedrocks, while endolithic lichens cover most of the cobbles and boulders in both aspects. In order to study their contribution to runoff water, a pair of runoff plots was established on habitats with cyanobacteria, endolithic lichens, and epilithic lichens. Rain and runoff were collected during the hydrological year 2006/07, and the chemical composition (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, HCO3, Si) of the rain and runoff water was analyzed. Several patterns were observed: (a) as indicated by Si, more dust accumulated on the bedrocks; (b) all substrates exhibited high amounts of Ca, and HCO3; (c) while SF-bedrocks showed enrichment in K, both bedrocks (and especially the NF bedrocks), as well as the NF boulders showed an enrichment in Mg. While the enrichment in Ca and HCO3 can be explained by the contribution of the limestone parent material, the enrichment in K and Mg can be explained by the contribution of the living lithobionts, with K being mainly contributed by the cyanobacteria and Mg mainly by the epilithic lichens. Ion enrichment may therefore be aspect-dependent, reflecting the lithobiont distribution within the drainage basin, partially explaining the enrichment in K and Mg previously recorded in runoff water from the Negev.

    KEY WORDS: Cyanobacteria; Dew; Lichens; Magnesium; Potassium; Negev Desert.

    Address:
    - Giora J. Kidron, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram Campus, Jerusalem 91904, Israel. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+972-2-676-7271 Fax.: Email: kidron@mail.huji.ac.il)
    - Abraham Starinsky, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram Campus, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.

     




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