Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 385 - 387, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0036
Information, English

Artemi Cerda, Brian A. Ebel, Dalila Serpa, Ľubomír Lichner: Introduction to the special issue on fire impacts on hydrological processes

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  • Data not available

    KEY WORDS: Data not available

    Address:
    - Artemi Cerda, Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group, Department of Geography, Valencia University, Blasco Ibanez, 28, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
    - Brian A. Ebel, U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Mission Area, Burlington, Vermont, USA.
    - Dalila Serpa, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Dept. Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
    - Ľubomír Lichner, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 388 - 400, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0033
Review, English

Brian A. Ebel, Joseph W. Wagenbrenner, Alicia M. Kinoshita, Kevin D. Bladon: Hydrologic recovery after wildfire: A framework of approaches, metrics, criteria, trajectories, and timescales

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  • Deviations in hydrologic processes due to wildfire can alter streamflows across the hydrograph, spanning peak flows to low flows. Fire-enhanced changes in hydrologic processes, including infiltration, interception, and evapotranspiration, and the resulting streamflow responses can affect water supplies, through effects on the quantity, quality, and timing of water availability. Post-fire shifts in hydrologic processes can also alter the timing and magnitude of floods and debris flows. The duration of hydrologic deviations from a pre-fire condition or function, sometimes termed hydrologic recovery, is a critical concern for land, water, and emergency managers. We reviewed and summarized terminology and approaches for defining and assessing hydrologic recovery after wildfire, focusing on statistical and functional definitions. We critically examined advantages and drawbacks of current recovery assessment methods, outline challenges to determining recovery, and call attention to selected opportunities for advancement of post-fire hydrologic recovery assessment. Selected challenges included hydroclimatic variability, post-fire land management, and spatial and temporal variability. The most promising opportunities for advancing assessment of hydrologic recovery include: (1) combining statistical and functional recovery approaches, (2) using a greater diversity of post-fire observations complemented with hydrologic modeling, and (3) defining optimal assemblages of recovery metrics and criteria for common hydrologic concerns and regions.

    KEY WORDS: Recovery; Wildland fire; Hydrologic function; Statistical recovery; Functional recovery; Ecosystem services.

    Address:
    - Brian A. Ebel, U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Mission Area, Burlington, Vermont, USA. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: bebel@usgs.gov)
    - Joseph W. Wagenbrenner, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Arcata, CA, USA.
    - Alicia M. Kinoshita, Department of Civil Construction, and Environmental Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.
    - Kevin D. Bladon, Department of Forest Engineering, Resources, and Management, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 401 - 409, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0025
Scientific Paper, English

Irena Atanassova, Milena Harizanova, Maya Benkova, Stefan H. Doerr: Changes in organic molecular marker signatures in soils amended with biochar during a three-year experiment with maize on a Fluvisol

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  • Biochar is widely used as a soil amendment to improve soil properties and as a tool to absorb net carbon from the atmosphere. In this study we determined the signatures of organic molecular markers in soil following the incorporation of 5 and 10 t/ha biochar in a Fluvisol, cultivated with maize at the experimental field of the ISSAPP “N. Poushkarov” institute in Bulgaria. The n-alkane distribution in the biochar treated soils was uni- or bimodal maximizing at n-C17 alkane, n-C18 or C18 branched alkanes, i.e. there was an imprint of biomass burning, e.g. from the biochar due to predominance of short chain (< C20) homologues and increased microbial activity (presence of branched alkanes). This is also confirmed by the values for the average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes which indicated prevalence of homologues of shorter chain (20–21 C atoms) in the variants of longer biochar residence time. There was evidence of trans-13-docosenamide, which originated from biochar. Fatty acids and fatty alcohols distributions also implicate microbial contribution to soil organic matter (SOM), supporting the suggestion that biochar addition can improve soil microbiological status.

    KEY WORDS: Biochar; Organic molecular markers; Fluvisol.

    Address:
    - Irena Atanassova, Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, Department of Agrochemistry, Agroecology and Soil Tillage, 7 Shosse Bankya Str., Sofia 1331, Bulgaria. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: i.d.atanassova@abv.bg)
    - Milena Harizanova, Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, Department of Agrochemistry, Agroecology and Soil Tillage, 7 Shosse Bankya Str., Sofia 1331, Bulgaria.
    - Maya Benkova, Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection, Department of Agrochemistry, Agroecology and Soil Tillage, 7 Shosse Bankya Str., Sofia 1331, Bulgaria.
    - Stefan H. Doerr, Department of Geography, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 410 - 420, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0031
Scientific Paper, English

Gaetano Caltabellotta, Massimo Iovino, Vincenzo Bagarello: Intensity and persistence of water repellency at different soil moisture contents and depths after a forest wildfire

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  • The Mediterranean mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest of Moarda (Palermo) was affected by a large wildfire in summer 2020. In spring 2021, burned and unburned loam soil sites were sampled and the water drop penetration time (WDPT) and ethanol percentage (EP) tests applied to assess the influence of wetting-drying processes and soil water content on post-fire soil water repellency (SWR) as well as its vertical distribution. According to the WDPT test, the surface layer of the natural unburned soils was severely hydrophobic at intermediate soil water contents roughly corresponding to wilting point and SWR reduced either for very dry conditions (air- or oven-dried conditions) or wetter conditions close to field capacity. For these soils, EP test yielded results in agreement with WDPT. An influence of the wetting/drying cycle was detected as, for a given soil water content, WDPT was generally higher for the drying than the wetting process. The surface of burned soils was always wettable independently of the soil water content. The vertical distribution of SWR was modified by wildfire and the maximum hydrophobicity layer, that was located at the surface of the unburned soils, moved to a depth of 2–4 cm in the soils of burned sites. The results confirmed that wildfire can induce destruction of soil water repellency (SWR) naturally occurring at the surface of forest soils and create a shallow hydrophobic layer that may increase overland flow and erosion risk.

    KEY WORDS: Wildfire; Soil water repellency; Water drop penetration time test; Ethanol percentage test.

    Address:
    - Gaetano Caltabellotta, Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie Alimentari e Forestali, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 4 Ingr. E, 90128 Palermo, Italy.
    - Massimo Iovino, Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie Alimentari e Forestali, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 4 Ingr. E, 90128 Palermo, Italy. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+39 091 23897070 Fax.: Email: massimo.iovino@unipa.it)
    - Vincenzo Bagarello, Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie Alimentari e Forestali, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 4 Ingr. E, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 421 - 431, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0024
Scientific Paper, English

Hana Fajković, Maja Ivanić, Ivan Nemet, Sanda Rončević, Štefica Kampić, Dana Leontić Vazdar: Heat–induced changes in soil properties: fires as cause for remobilization of chemical elements

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  • Exposure of soil constituents to elevated temperatures during wildfire can significantly affect their properties and consequently, increase the mobility of the bound contaminants. To estimate the potential of wildfires to influence metal remobilization from the burned soil due to the changes in cation exchange capacity (CEC) after organic matter combustion and mineral alteration and degradation, changes in soil properties after exposure to different temperatures was investigated. This was accomplished through analysis of geochemical, mineralogical and surface physicochemical properties of a soil sample exposed to different temperatures in a laboratory. Heating the soil sample at 200 °C, 500 °C and 850 °C resulted in an increase in pH (from 5.9 to 12.3), decrease in cation exchange capacity (from 47.2 to 7.3 cmol+kg–1) and changes in the specific surface area (observed only at 500 °C), that are associated with structural modifications of clay minerals and ferromagnetic minerals. Extraction analysis showed the increase in the concentration of almost all analysed elements (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn) in soil eluates. The observed increase, following high– temperature heating (500 °C and 850 °C), was as much as 15 times higher (e.g., Al), compared to the native soil sample (25 °C). This strongly indicates that wildfire can act as a trigger for remobilization of heavy metals.

    KEY WORDS: Heating; Soil; Trace metals; Physicochemical properties.

    Address:
    - Hana Fajković, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102a, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    - Maja Ivanić, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička c. 54, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+385 1 456 1176 Fax.: Email: mivanic@irb.hr)
    - Ivan Nemet, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102a, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    - Sanda Rončević, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102a, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    - Štefica Kampić, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102a, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    - Dana Leontić Vazdar, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102a, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 432 - 441, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0035
Scientific Paper, English

Leandro M. Godoy, Liliana B. Simoes, Martinho A.S. Martins, Ana I. Machado, Jan J. Keizer: An exploratory study into ash mobilization using lysimeters

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  • Wildfires burn vegetation and leave the resultant organic and inorganic ash into the soil surface. Depending on the temperatures and burn durations, the quantity and type of ash can vary widely. Ash mobilization following wildfire is a topic of major concern, since it may result in contamination of surface water bodies within and downstream of the burnt areas. The present study aims to analyse the influence of black and white ash on surface runoff, leachate and total erosion and erosion of organic matter by running a field experiment along 6 weeks, using three replicate lysimeters with control soil, soil with addition of black ash and soil with addition of white ash. There was some suggestion but no statistical evidence that black ash reduced overland flow generation during the initial rainfall events, while black ash was found to increase sediment and organic matter losses by overland flow in a statistically significant manner. This was not during the initial rainfall events and, therefore, not directly related to the presence of a homogenous cover of a well-defined ash layer on the soil surface.

    KEY WORDS: Wildfire; Ash; Runoff; Leachate; Erosion.

    Address:
    - Leandro M. Godoy, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Dept. Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
    - Liliana B. Simoes, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Dept. Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
    - Martinho A.S. Martins, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Dept. Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+351 916499823 Fax.: Email: martinho.martins@ua.pt)
    - Ana I. Machado, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Dept. Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
    - Jan J. Keizer, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Dept. Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 442 - 449, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0034
Scientific Paper, English

Slavomír Hološ, Peter Šurda, Ľubomír Lichner, Anton Zvala, Vladimír Píš: Fire-induced changes in soil properties depend on age and type of forests

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  • Wildfires affect different physical, chemical, and hydraulic soil properties, and the magnitude of their effects varies depending on intrinsic soil properties and wildfire characteristics. The objectives of this study are: to estimate the impact of heating temperature (50–900°C) on the properties of sandy soil (Arenosol) taken in 1) coniferous forests (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) of different ages (30 and 100 years); and 2) coniferous (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) and deciduous (alder Alnus glutinosa) forests of the same age (30 years). The forests are located in the central part of the Borská nížina lowland (western Slovakia), and the properties treated were soil organic carbon content (SOC), pH, and soil water repellency (measured in terms of water drop penetration time, WDPT). It was found that the impact of heating temperature on the properties of sandy soil is great and depends on both the age and type of forest. The SOC value decreased unevenly with temperature in all three soils, and it was higher in the 30-year-old deciduous forest soil than in the 30-year-old coniferous forest soil. The value of pH increased monotonously with temperature from 200 °C, and it was higher in 30-year-old coniferous forest soil than in the 100-year-old coniferous forest soil. SOC and WDPT in the 100-year-old coniferous forest soil were higher than SOC and WDPT in the 30-year-old coniferous forest soil. Results obtained (decrease in SOC, disappearance of SWR after heating to 400 °C, and increase in pH from heating temperature 200 °C) bring important information for post-fire vegetation restoration and post-fire management of Central European forests established on sandy soil.

    KEY WORDS: Sandy soil; Soil water repellency; Soil heating; Soil organic carbon; pH; water drop penetration time.

    Address:
    - Slavomír Hološ, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia. Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Institute of Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Hospodárska 7, Nitra, Slovakia.
    - Peter Šurda, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: surda@uh.savba.sk)
    - Ľubomír Lichner, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    - Anton Zvala, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    - Vladimír Píš, Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute, National Agricultural and Food Centre, Trenčianska 55, Bratislava, Slovakia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 450 - 461, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0032
Scientific Paper, English

Tailin Li, Jakub Jeřábek, Jan Winkler, Magdalena Daria Vaverková, David Zumr: Effects of prescribed fire on topsoil properties: a small-scale straw burning experiment

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  • A grassland was burned to investigate how a short prescribed fire affected soil physical and hydraulic properties, soil water balance, and emergent vegetation. Three years before the experiment at Řisuty, Czech Republic, the grassland was re-established on arable soil. At the experimental site there is a weather station and sensors measuring soil temperature and moisture at three different depths. The 5 m × 5 m burned plot was compared to a nearby unburned reference location. The loamy Cambisol soil was not water-repellent. 250 m2 of sun-dried grass was raked and burned at the burned plot. The fire lasted approximately 15-minute and reached 700 °C. Soil samples were taken immediately after the fire and weekly to monthly thereafter to quantify organic carbon content, soil structure stability, hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and texture. According to the research results, it appears that temporary burning improved the hydraulic properties of the topsoil. The fire plot's infiltration capacity was increased, and soil water content was higher than the control plot throughout the year, providing suitable habitat for colonizing vegetation. The results suggest that small-scale controlled biomass burning can be risk-free to the soil ecosystem and may even temporarily improve the hydraulic properties of the upper soil layer.

    KEY WORDS: Prescribed fire; Grassland; Topsoil dynamics; Post-fire soil properties.

    Address:
    - Tailin Li, Department of Landscape Water Conservation, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 16629, Prague, Czech Republic.
    - Jakub Jeřábek, Department of Landscape Water Conservation, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 16629, Prague, Czech Republic.
    - Jan Winkler, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic.
    - Magdalena Daria Vaverková, Department of Applied and Landscape Ecology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic. Institute of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences–SGGW, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.
    - David Zumr, Department of Landscape Water Conservation, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 16629, Prague, Czech Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: david.zumr@fsv.cvut.cz)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 462 - 474, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0028
Scientific Paper, English

Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Cristina Fernández, Pedro Antonio Plaza-Alvarez, Bruno Gianmarco Carra, Demetrio Antonio Zema: Variability of soil properties with fire severity in pine forests and reforested areas under Mediterranean conditions

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  • It is well known how fires affect the properties of forest soils depending on its severity. A better understanding of the magnitude of these impacts is essential to setup effective management actions after fire against the losses of soil and biodiversity. However, physical, chemical and biological processes in burnt soils are complex, resulting in a diversity of fire-induced changes, as acknowledged in many literature studies. Moreover, these changes may be even variable between natural forests and reforested areas. This study explores the changes in the most important soil properties with fire severity, from low to high. The main chemical parameters of soils were measured after field sampling in different pine forests (burnt natural stands, reforested areas as well as unburnt sites) of Castilla La Mancha (Central Eastern Spain). In comparison to the unburnt soils, the investigation has shown in the burnt areas: (i) no evident changes in soil pH at all fire severities, except in natural stands burnt at a very high severity (showing an increase of about 10%); (ii) increases in the organic carbon content (by about 70%) of soils burnt at a moderate fire severity under both forest ecosystems, and in reforested areas at very high fire severities (+95%); (iii) small differences in the nitrogen content of soil, except for a significant increase measured in soils burnt at an moderate fire severity under both the natural pine stand and reforested area (about +300%); (iv) a limited variability of the phosphorous content in the soil, with only an increase in soils under natural pine stands burnt at moderate fire severity (by 250%); (v) increases in magnesium and potassium contents in soils burnt at the highest fire severities for both land conditions, and decreases in calcium content in reforested areas burnt at the highest severity. Due to some negative impacts (increase in pH and decrease in organic carbon), the implementation of post-fire management actions at natural pine stands burnt at the highest fire severity should be a priority over reforested areas. Overall, this study did not show a straightforward pattern between soil properties, fire severity and land condition. This means that other parameters (for instance, the hydrological properties of soils) that were not explored in this investigation could have played an important role, and therefore must be taken into consideration when defining post-fire management actions.

    KEY WORDS: Pine natural stand; Pine reforestation; Soil changes; Soil organic carbon; Nutrients; Post-fire management.

    Address:
    - Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Castilla La Mancha University, School of Advanced Agricultural and Forestry Engineering. Department of Agroforestry Technology and Science and Genetics, Campus Universitario s/n, E-02071, Albacete, Spain.
    - Cristina Fernández, Centro de Investigación Forestal-Lourizán, Xunta de Galicia, P.O. Box 127, 36080 Pontevedra, Spain.
    - Pedro Antonio Plaza-Alvarez, Castilla La Mancha University, School of Advanced Agricultural and Forestry Engineering. Department of Agroforestry Technology and Science and Genetics, Campus Universitario s/n, E-02071, Albacete, Spain.
    - Bruno Gianmarco Carra, Castilla La Mancha University, School of Advanced Agricultural and Forestry Engineering. Department of Agroforestry Technology and Science and Genetics, Campus Universitario s/n, E-02071, Albacete, Spain.
    - Demetrio Antonio Zema, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Department AGRARIA, Localita Feo di Vito, I-89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: dzema@unirc.it)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 4, 2022, p. 475 - 480, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0029
Scientific Paper, English

Fara Aiza Md Sanin, Nor Eliza Alias, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Mariyana Aida Ab. Kadir, Izni Izzati Mohamad, Rasnavi Paramasivam: Open data application to evaluate exposure of wildfire to water resources: A case study in Johor, Malaysia

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  • Climate change impacts wildfire events as well as water availability. Exposure of water resources to wildfire can reduce water quality supplied to humans and resulting health problems. On the other hand, water resources such as rivers and ponds are essential in wildfire firefighting. This paper intended to assess spatially the exposure of water resources to wildfire. A case study in Johor, Malaysia is utilised to asses and determine locations of water bodies in an area which are vulnerable to wildfire. Post wildfire runoff water can contaminate water resources. Fire data collected by MODIS from 2000–2020 are used to create a hotspot map. Water resources and waterbody data originated from Department of Surveying and Mapping Malaysia used to identify the stream and dams that are exposed to wildfire. 5 class exposure level has been set to show the degree of closeness of water resources to wildfire hotspot area. Using the spatial analysis method, low to high level of potential wildfire-water exposures were able to be locate. Analysis shows, 7% of Johor's water sources is exposed to medium levels of wildfire, while just 1% is exposed to the highest levels. The majority of the streams have very low levels of exposure. In addition, the wildfire-water exposure map aids in first respondent preparedness and planning.

    KEY WORDS: Water resources; Hotspots; Wildfire; Exposure; Spatial analysis.

    Address:
    - Fara Aiza Md Sanin, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
    - Nor Eliza Alias, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Water Security (IPASA), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: noreliza@utm.my)
    - Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Tropical Map Research Group, Faculty of Built Environment & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
    - Mariyana Aida Ab. Kadir, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
    - Izni Izzati Mohamad, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
    - Rasnavi Paramasivam, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

     




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841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
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