Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 1 - 10, doi: 10.2478/johh-2023-0001
Scientific Paper, English

Steffen Beck-Broichsitter, Zarghaam Haider Rizvi, Rainer Horn, Frank Wuttke: Effect of gravel content on soil water retention characteristics and thermal capacity of sandy and silty soils

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  • The presence of gravel in soils modifies the porosity, pore connectivity and pore size distribution in the soil matrix as well as the soil matrix-gravel interfaces. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of relative volume of gravel in samples with gravel mass fractions of 5,10, 20 wt% and varying bulk densities (1.3, 1.45, 1.55, 1.60, 1.65 g cm–3) on (i) total porosity, field capacity, plant available water holding capacity, (ii) pore size distribution and (iii) thermal capacity of repacked sandy and silty soils. The focus of the study was to determine if laboratory measured soil water retention curves considering (i), (ii), and (iii) can be predicted by a gravel-based weighting factor, Rv, considering comprehensive significance tests. The sand-gravel mixtures show a decrease in the volume fractions of macropores and wide cores pores with an increase in the gravel contents, while the silt-gravel mixtures show an opposite trend. The root mean square errors (RMSE) between measured and fitted volumetric water contents, θ, between 0.006 and 0.0352 and between 0.002 and 0.004 for Rv-weighted volumetric water contents indicate that the van Genuchten-based Peters-Durner- Iden (PDI) model is appropriate for fitting. The soil water retention curves with mass gravel contents of up to 10 wt% for silt and 20 wt% for sand can be well predicted by weighting factors (relative volume of rock fragments) in the range between 0.045 and 0.058 for silt, and between 0.112 and 0.119 for sand. The results also indicate a decrease in the Rv-weighted saturated, cvsat, and dry, cvdry, thermal capacity with an increase in the gravel contents for both soils. Further investigations are needed to examine if and whether measured sand- and silt-gravel mixtures with mass gravel contents below 10 % or rather 20 % can be predicted with a weighting factor.

    KEY WORDS: Pore size distribution; Soil water retention curve; Thermal capacity; PDI model.

    Address:
    - Steffen Beck-Broichsitter, Institute for Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Kiel University, 24118 Kiel, Germany. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: s.beck-broichsitter@soils.uni-kiel.de)
    - Zarghaam Haider Rizvi, Department of Civil Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Geomechanics & Geotechnics, Kiel University, Kiel, 24118, Germany.
    - Rainer Horn, Institute for Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Kiel University, 24118 Kiel, Germany.
    - Frank Wuttke, Geomechanics & Geotechnics, Kiel University, Kiel, 24118, Germany.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 11 - 21, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0042
Scientific Paper, English

Caroline H. Dias, Felipe M. Eler, Carlos Cordeiro, Mateus G. Ramirez, José A. Soares, Denise Nunes, Maira C.O. Lima, Paulo Couto: Effects of pore size and pore connectivity on trapped gas saturation

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  • Trapped or residual air (or gas) is known to affect the multiphase hydraulic properties of both soils and rocks. Trapped air is known to impact many vadose zone hydrologic applications such as infiltration and flow in the capillary fringe, but is also a major issue affecting recoverable oil reserves. Although many studies have focused on the relationship between porosity and trapped gas saturation (Sgt) in sandstones, far fewer studies have been carried out for carbonate rocks. This work aims to analyze the influence of porous media properties on trapped gas saturation in carbonate rocks. For this we used thirteen Indiana Limestone and Silurian dolomite rock samples from the USA, and several coquinas from the Morro do Chaves formation in Brazil. Pore size distributions were obtained for all samples using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP) data from three of the samples to determine their pore throat size distributions. Additionally, 3D microtomography (microCT) images were used to quantify macropore profiles and pore connectivities. Results indicate a lower capacity of gas trapping in carbonate rocks in which micro- and mesopores predominate. Results also indicate that in carbonate rocks, pore size exerts a greater influence on the ability of gas trapping compared to pore connectivity, so that rocks with a predominance of macropores have greater capacity for gas trapping, even when the macropores are well interconnected. These findings show that pore characteristics very much affect the processes governing gas trapping in carbonate rocks, and indirectly the multiphase hydraulic properties and recoverable oil reserves of carbonate rock reservoirs.

    KEY WORDS: Trapped gas; Carbonate rocks; Pore size distribution; Coordination number.

    Address:
    - Caroline H. Dias, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: caroldias@petroleo.ufrj.br)
    - Felipe M. Eler, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    - Carlos Cordeiro, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    - Mateus G. Ramirez, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    - José A. Soares, Department of Mining Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, Paraíba, PB, Brazil.
    - Denise Nunes, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    - Maira C.O. Lima, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    - Paulo Couto, Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 22 - 34, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0039
Scientific Paper, English

Katsutoshi Seki, Nobuo Toride, Martinus Th. van Genuchten: Evaluation of a general model for multimodal unsaturated soil hydraulic properties

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  • Many soils and other porous media exhibit dual- or multi-porosity type features. In a previous study (Seki et al., 2022) we presented multimodal water retention and closed-form hydraulic conductivity equations for such media. The objective of this study is to show that the proposed equations are practically useful. Specifically, dual-BC (Brooks and Corey)-CH (common head) (DBC), dual-VG (van Genuchten)-CH (DVC), and KO (Kosugi)1BC2-CH (KBC) models were evaluated for a broad range of soil types. The three models showed good agreement with measured water retention and hydraulic conductivity data over a wide range of pressure heads. Results were obtained by first optimizing water retention parameters and then optimizing the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and two parameters (p, q) or (p, r) in the general hydraulic conductivity equation. Although conventionally the tortuosity factor p is optimized and (q, r) fixed, sensitivity analyses showed that optimization of two parameters (p + r, qr) is required for the multimodal models. For 20 soils from the UNSODA database, the average R2 for log (hydraulic conductivity) was highest (0.985) for the KBC model with r = 1 and optimization of (Ks, p, q). This result was almost equivalent (0.973) to the DVC model with q = 1 and optimization of (Ks, p, r); both were higher than R2 for the widely used Peters model (0.956) when optimizing (Ks, p, a, ω). The proposed equations are useful for practical applications while mathematically being simple and consistent.

    KEY WORDS: Water retention; Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity; General hydraulic conductivity model; Multimodal hydraulic models.

    Address:
    - Katsutoshi Seki, Natural Science Laboratory, Toyo University, 5-28-20 Hakusan, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8606, Japan. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: seki_k@toyo.jp)
    - Nobuo Toride, Graduate school of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho Tsu, Mie 514-8507 Japan.
    - Martinus Th. van Genuchten, Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CS Utrecht, Netherlands. Department of Nuclear Engineering, POLI & COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rua Horácio Macedo, Bloco G, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-450, Brazil.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 35 - 48, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0040
Scientific Paper, English

Šimon Pospíšilík, Zbyněk Zachoval: Discharge coefficient, effective head and limit head in the Kindsvater-Shen formula for small discharges measured by thin-plate weirs with a triangular notch

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  • The paper deals with the determination of the discharge coefficient, effective head and newly the limit head in the Kindsvater-Shen formula for the determination of a relatively small discharge of clear water using a thin-plate weir with a triangular notch. The determination of the discharge coefficient, effective head and limit head is based on extensive experimental research and is verified by previous measurements by other authors. The experimental research was characterised by a large range of notch angles (from 5.25° to 91.17°), weir heights (from 0.00 m to 0.20 m), and water temperatures (from 15 °C to 45 °C), as well as a focus on relatively small heads (from 0.02 m to 0.18 m), which is where the strengths of the Kindsvater-Shen formula stand out. The experimental research supplemented existing knowledge about the overflow occurring with small heads and small weir notch angles. The newly determined dependencies in the Kindsvater-Shen formula extended its applicability to weirs with small notch angles and newly enabled the determination of the limit head, which restricts its applicability in the determination of small discharges.

    KEY WORDS: Triangular notch (V-notch); Thin-plate weir; Kindsvater-Shen formula; Discharge coefficient; Effective head; Limit head.

    Address:
    - Šimon Pospíšilík, Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Water Structures, Veveří 331/95, Brno, 602 00, Czech Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: pospisilik.s@fce.vutbr.cz)
    - Zbyněk Zachoval, Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Water Structures, Veveří 331/95, Brno, 602 00, Czech Republic.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 49 - 63, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0027
Scientific Paper, English

Carys Thomas, Ioanna Stamataki, Joan Rosselló-Geli: Reconstruction of the 1974 flash flood in Sóller (Mallorca) using a hydraulic 1D/2D model

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  • Flash flood events are common in the Mediterranean basin, because of a combination of rugged coastal topography and climatological characteristics. The Balearic Islands are a flood-prone region with the research area, Sóller (Mallorca) being no exception. Between 1900 and 2000, Sóller experienced 48 flash floods with 17 categorised as catastrophic. In Sóller, the local surface water network comprises ephemeral streams. These are natural water networks that only carry water during periods of intense rainfall. Using the available evidence from the 1974 flash flood, this research used Flood Modeller to simulate the event. The research developed a one-dimensional (1D) and a onedimensional two-dimensional (1D-2D) model that assisted in the understanding of the behaviour of the ephemeral stream during the flood. Analysis of hydraulic parameters such as water flow, depth and velocity provided an appreciation of the interaction between the channel and floodplain. Model development aims to forecast the impending impacts of climate change and urbanisation. The results suggest that the characteristics of Sóller’s catchment area naturally encourage flash flooding and hence can be deemed a flashy catchment. The model demonstrates that the interaction between the channel and floodplain relies heavily on surface roughness of both areas. The model proves that if flood intensity increases with climate change, the extent of flooding and consequently the damage will become more severe.

    KEY WORDS: Flash floods; Hydraulic model; Documentary sources; Historical flood reconstruction; Hydrograph; Mallorca.

    Address:
    - Carys Thomas, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, North East Somerset, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+44 7794945764 Fax.: Email: carys.a.thomas@bath.edu)
    - Ioanna Stamataki, School of Engineering, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom.
    - Joan Rosselló-Geli, Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 08018 Barcelona, Spain.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 64 - 79, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0026
Scientific Paper, English

Di Zhang, Chunming Liu, Xiaotao Shi, Yakun Liu, Yingmin Qu: A novel H-shape fishway with excellent hydraulic characteristics

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  • Fishway design not only takes into account the swimming abilities of target fishes, but also considers the hydrodynamic characteristics within the fishway. In this study, the flow fields of one vertical-slot fishway (i.e. VSF), five T-shape fishways (i.e. TSF-1~TSF-5) and two H-shape fishways (i.e. HSF-1 and HSF-2) are numerically simulated by solving the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the K-Omega-SST turbulence model. The numerical results clearly indicate that the hydrodynamic properties of HSF-2 are overall superior to the remaining seven cases, in terms of the time-averaged flow pattern, the time-averaged velocity magnitude, the depth-mean timeaveraged velocity magnitude along the vertical-slot section, the volume percentages of the time-averaged velocity magnitude less than some critical values, and the distribution of the time-averaged turbulent kinetic energy. Therefore, HSF-2 is more friendly for fishes with relatively smaller sizes and weaker swimming capacities to transfer upstream. The novel HSF-2 is firstly proposed in this paper, and it is naturally designed during the process of improving the flow regime. Furthermore, the generalizability of the superiority of HSF-2 over VSF and the original T-shape fishway (i.e. TSF-1) has been exhibited with the aid of the numerical results of four operating conditions (i.e. Q = 400 L/s, 600 L/s, 800 L/s and 1000 L/s).

    KEY WORDS: Hydraulic characteristics; Vertical-slot fishway; H-shape fishway; T-shape fishway; Turbulent kinetic energy; K-Omega-SST turbulence model.

    Address:
    - Di Zhang, School of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China.
    - Chunming Liu, School of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China.
    - Xiaotao Shi, Hubei International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Fish Passage, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, 443002, China. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+86-0717-6394339 Fax.: Email: fishlab@163.com)
    - Yakun Liu, School of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China.
    - Yingmin Qu, School of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 80 - 90, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0041
Scientific Paper, English

Monika Zwolenik, Bogusław Michalec: Effect of water surface slope and friction slope on the value of the estimated Manning’s roughness coefficient in gravel-bed streams

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  • The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of using the empirical formulas to determine the roughness coefficient in gravel-bed streams, the bed slopes of which range from 0.006 to 0.047. Another aim was to determine the impact of taking into account the conditions of non-uniform flow on the application of these formulas and to develop the correlation relationships between the roughness coefficient and water surface slope and also between the roughness coefficient and friction slope in order to estimate the roughness coefficient n in gravel-bed streams. The studies were conducted in eight measuring sections of streams located in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, southern Poland. The roughness coefficient n0 for these sections was calculated from the transformed Bernoulli equation based on the results of surveys and hydrometric measurements. The values of n0 were compared with the calculation results obtained from fourteen empirical formulas presenting the roughness coefficient as a function of slope. The Lacey, Riggs, Bray and Sauer formulas were found to provide an approximate estimate of the n value, while the best roughness coefficient estimation results were obtained using the Riggs formula. It was also found that taking into account the non-uniform flow and using the friction slope in the formulas instead of the bed slope or water surface slope did not improve the estimated values of the roughness coefficient using the tested formulas. It was shown that the lack of differences in the RMSE and MAE error values calculated for the developed correlation equations between the roughness coefficient and the friction slope or with the water surface slope also indicate no influence of the assumed friction slope or water surface slope on the value of the estimated roughness coefficient.

    KEY WORDS: Roughness coefficient; Bed slope; Uniform flow; Non-uniform flow.

    Address:
    - Monika Zwolenik, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Department of Water Engineering and Geotechnics, Al. A. Mickiewicza 24/28 Kraków, Poland. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: monika.zwolenik88@interia.pl)
    - Bogusław Michalec, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Department of Water Engineering and Geotechnics, Al. A. Mickiewicza 24/28 Kraków, Poland.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 91 - 99, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0038
Scientific Paper, English

Ivan Dugan, Igor Bogunovic, Paulo Pereira: Soil management and seasonality impact on soil properties and soil erosion in steep vineyards of north-western Croatia

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  • In order to mitigate vineyard degradation, we study different soil management to obtain the most suitable practices. To study the effects of water erosion on vineyards, a rainfall experiment (58 mm h-1 for 30 min) was applied on Anthrosols in humid conditions to assess the impact of treatment (Tilled, Straw and Grass) and season (Spring and Summer). Higher bulk density (BD) and soil water content (SWC) were on the Straw treatment in the Spring period. Also, the Tilled and Grass treatment noticed higher mean weight diameter (MWD) and water-stable aggregates (WSA). In the Summer, BD, SWC and MWD were significantly higher on the Grass treatment. Higher values of time to ponding (TP) and time to runoff (TR) in Spring were recorded on the Grass treatment, Runoff was higher on the Straw treatment. Higher sediment concentration (SC) and soil loss (SL) were noticed during the Tilled treatment. In the Summer period, TP was higher on the Straw treatment, while TR and Runoff were higher on the Straw, SC and SL on the Tilled treatment. This study confirms the positive effects of grass cover and straw mulching as a sustainable agricultural practice in sloped vineyards of north-western Croatia.

    KEY WORDS: Land degradation; Trafficking; Tillage; Overland flow; Nutrient loss.

    Address:
    - Ivan Dugan, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    - Igor Bogunovic, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: ibogunovic@agr.hr)
    - Paulo Pereira, Environmental Management Laboratory, Mykolas Romeris University, LT-08303 Vilnius, Lithuania.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 100 - 110, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0030
Scientific Paper, English

Ognjen Bonacci, Duje Bonacci, Tanja Roje-Bonacci, Adrijana Vrsalović: Proposal of a new method for drought analysis

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  • Below-average precipitation and above-average air temperature are important factors in the occurrence and intensity of drought. In the context of global climate change, air temperature increase, as a key climatological parameter, has to be considered when calculating the drought index. We introduce a new method of drought analysis, relying on standardized values of precipitation and mean air temperatures for a certain period. The standardized value is calculated by subtracting the average value for each period from each measured value and dividing the obtained value by the standard deviation of the sample. Next, the New Drought Index (NDI) is calculated by subtracting the standardized temperature value from the standardized precipitation value. NDI values were determined for the monthly and annual precipitation time series and mean monthly and annual air temperatures measured at the stations Split-Marjan and Zagreb-Grič between 1948 and 2020. The NDI indicates that the risk of drought has intensified significantly in recent decades, which may be related to the effect of global warming.

    KEY WORDS: Drought; Air temperature; Precipitation; New Drought Index (NDI); Split-Marjan; Zagreb-Grič.

    Address:
    - Ognjen Bonacci, University of Split, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, 21000 Split, Matice hrvatske 15, Croatia.
    - Duje Bonacci, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Croatian Studies, 10000 Zagreb, Borongajska cesta 83d, Croatia.
    - Tanja Roje-Bonacci, University of Split, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, 21000 Split, Matice hrvatske 15, Croatia.
    - Adrijana Vrsalović, University of Split, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, 21000 Split, Matice hrvatske 15, Croatia. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: avrsalovic@gradst.hr)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 71, No. 1, 2023, p. 111 - 122, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0037
Scientific Paper, English

Patrik Sleziak, Martin Jančo, Michal Danko, Ladislav Méri, Ladislav Holko: Accuracy of radar-estimated precipitation in a mountain catchment in Slovakia

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  • Accurate estimation of precipitation in mountain catchments is challenging due to its high spatial variability and lack of measured ground data. Weather radar can help to provide precipitation estimates in such conditions. This study investigates the differences between measured and radar-estimated daily precipitation in the mountain catchment of the Jalovecký Creek (area 22 km2, 6 rain gauges at altitudes 815–1900 m a.s.l.) in years 2017–2020. Despite good correlations between measured and radar-based precipitation at individual sites (correlation coefficients 0.68–0.90), the radar-estimated precipitation was mostly substantially smaller than measured precipitation. The underestimation was smaller at lower altitude (on average by –4% to –17% at 815 m a.s.l.) than at higher altitudes (–35% to –59% at 1400–1900 m a.s.l.). Unlike measured data, the radar-estimated precipitation did not show the differences in precipitation amounts at lower and higher altitudes (altitudinal differences). The differences between the measured and radar-estimated precipitation were not related to synoptic weather situations. The obtained results can be useful in preparation of more accurate precipitation estimates for the small mountain catchments.

    KEY WORDS: Radar-estimated precipitation; Precipitation estimates; Daily precipitation; Synoptic weather situations.

    Address:
    - Patrik Sleziak, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovakia. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: sleziak@uh.savba.sk)
    - Martin Jančo, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    - Michal Danko, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    - Ladislav Méri, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovakia. Department of Astronomy, Physics of the Earth, and Meteorology, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina 842 48, Bratislava 4, Slovakia.
    - Ladislav Holko, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovakia.

     




JHH Editorial Office
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh
email: Lubomir.Lichner@savba.sk


Acta Hydrologica Slovaca
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah

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