Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4 - Early View, 2020, p. 1 - 7, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0018
Scientific Paper, English

Antoni M.C. Verdú, M. Teresa Mas, Ramon Josa, Marta Ginovart: The effect of a prototype hydromulch on soil water evaporation under controlled laboratory conditions

 Full Text in PDF     27 DOWNLOADS

 

  • Organic hydromulches can be an interesting alternative for weed control in perennial crops, but can also reduce soil water evaporation. To examine the effect of a hydromulch layer on soil water content in dry conditions laboratory experiments were conducted at constant 25°C, 40% air RH. Both for small soil containers with a short time course and for larger soil columns (with two sensors at depths of 6 cm and 11 cm) with a longer time course, the presence and also the thickness of hydromulch were significant factors for the temporal evolution of soil water content. Two distinct stages of the evaporation process, the first or initial stage and the last or final stage, were identified, analysed and compared for these experiments. General linear models performed on the soil water content temporal evolutions showed significant differences for the first and last stages at the top and bottom of the soil columns with and without hydromulch. Hydromulch application delayed the evaporation process in comparison with the control. Moreover, the hydromulch layer, which was tested for mechanical resistance to punching, offered enough resistance to prevent its perforation by the sprouts of weed rhizomes.

    KEY WORDS: Byproducts reuse; Punching resistance; Sandy loam soil; Water conservation; Weeds.

    Address:
    - Antoni M.C. Verdú, Department of Agri-Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/ Esteve Terradas 8, 08860-Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.
    - M. Teresa Mas, Department of Agri-Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/ Esteve Terradas 8, 08860-Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.
    - Ramon Josa, Department of Agri-Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/ Esteve Terradas 8, 08860-Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.
    - Marta Ginovart, Departament of Mathematics, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/ Esteve Terradas 8, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+34 935 521 133 Fax.: +34 935 521 122 Email: marta.ginovart@upc.edu)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4 - Early View, 2020, p. 1 - 15, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0015
Scientific Paper, English

Meseret B. Addisie, Getaneh K. Ayele, Nigus Hailu, Eddy J. Langendoen, Seifu A. Tilahun, Petra Schmitter, J.-Yves Parlange, Tammo S. Steenhuis: Connecting hillslope and runoff generation processes in the Ethiopian Highlands: The Ene-Chilala watershed

 Full Text in PDF     17 DOWNLOADS

 

  • Effective watershed planning requires an understanding of the hydrology. In the humid tropical monsoon climates and especially in volcanic highland regions such as the Ethiopian Highlands, the understanding of watershed processes is incomplete. The objective is to better understand the hydrology of the volcanic regions in the humid highlands by linking the hillslope processes with the discharge at the outlet. The Ene-Chilala watershed was selected for this study. The infiltration rate, piezometric water levels and discharge from two nested sub watersheds and at the watershed outlet were measured during a four-year period. Infiltration rates on the hillsides exceeded the rainfall intensity most of the time. The excess rain recharged a perched hillside aquifer. Water flowed through the perched aquifer as interflow to rivers and outlet. In addition, saturation excess overland flow was generated in the valley bottoms. Perched water tables heights were predicted by summing up the recharge over the travel time from the watershed divide. Travel times ranged from a few days for piezometers close to the divide to 40 days near the outlet. River discharge was simulated by adding the interflow from the upland to overland flow from the saturated valley bottom lands. Overland flow accounted only for one-fourth of the total flow. There was good agreement between predicted and observed discharge during the rain phase therefore the hillslope hydrologically processes were successfully linked with the discharge at the outlet.

    KEY WORDS: Hillslope hydrology; Saturation; Rainfall intensity; Perched groundwater; Ethiopian Highlands.

    Address:
    - Meseret B. Addisie, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Guna Tana Integrated Field Research and Development Center, Debre Tabor University, Ethiopia.
    - Getaneh K. Ayele, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    - Nigus Hailu, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    - Eddy J. Langendoen, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Sedimentation Laboratory, Oxford, MS, USA.
    - Seifu A. Tilahun, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    - Petra Schmitter, International Water Management Institute (IWMI) East Africa Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    - J.-Yves Parlange, Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, 206 Riley Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 USA.
    - Tammo S. Steenhuis, Faculty of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, 206 Riley Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 USA. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: tammo@cornell.edu)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 68, No. 4 - Early View, 2020, p. 1 - 13, doi: 10.2478/johh-2020-0022
Scientific Paper, English

Roberto Corona, Nicola Montaldo: On the transpiration of wild olives under water-limited conditions in a heterogeneous ecosystem with shallow soil over fractured rock

 Full Text in PDF     12 DOWNLOADS

 

  • Mediterranean ecosystems are typically heterogeneous and savanna-like, with trees and grass competing for water use. By measuring sap flow, we estimated high transpiration of wild olive, a common Mediterranean tree, in Sardinia despite dry conditions. This estimate agrees with independent estimates of tree transpiration based on energy balance, highlighting the wild olive’s strong tolerance of dry conditions. The wild olive can develop an adaptation strategy to tolerate dry conditions. In this Sardinian case study, the wild olive grew in shallow soil, and the tree roots expanded into the underlying fractured basalt. The trees survived in dry periods using water infiltrated during wet seasons into fractured rocks and held in soil pockets. We estimated a high upward vertical flux through the bottom soil layer from the underlying substrate, which reached 97% evapotranspiration in August 2011. The water taken up by tree roots from bedrock hollows is usually neglected in ecohydrological modeling.

    KEY WORDS: Evapotranspiration; Rock moisture; Water uptake; Sap flow; Energy balance.

    Address:
    - Roberto Corona, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile Ambientale e Architettura, Universita di Cagliari, Via Marengo, 3, I-09123 Cagliari, Italy. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+39-070-675-5318 Fax.: Email: roberto.corona@unica.it)
    - Nicola Montaldo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile Ambientale e Architettura, Universita di Cagliari, Via Marengo, 3, I-09123 Cagliari, Italy.

     




JHH Editorial Office
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh
email: Lubomir.Lichner@savba.sk

Institute of Hydrodynamics CAS, v. v. i.
Pod Paťankou 30/5
166 12 Praha 6
Czech Republic
email: vlasak@ih.cas.sk

Acta Hydrologica Slovaca
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah

Keep in touch with IH SAS

 Facebook

 RSS Feed