Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 3 - Early View, 2022, p. 1 - 11, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0014
Scientific Paper, English

István Mihály Kulmány, Ákos Bede-Fazekas, Ana Beslin, Zsolt Giczi, Gábor Milics, Barna Kovács, Márk Kovács, Bálint Ambrus, László Bede, Viktória Vona: Calibration of an Arduino-based low-cost capacitive soil moisture sensor for smart agriculture

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  • Agriculture faces several challenges to use the available resources in a more environmentally sustainable manner. One of the most significant is to develop sustainable water management. The modern Internet of Things (IoT) techniques with real-time data collection and visualisation can play an important role in monitoring the readily available moisture in the soil. An automated Arduino-based low-cost capacitive soil moisture sensor has been calibrated and developed for data acquisition. A sensor- and soil-specific calibration was performed for the soil moisture sensors (SKU:SEN0193 - DFROBOT, Shanghai, China). A Repeatability and Reproducibility study was conducted by range of mean methods on clay loam, sandy loam and silt loam soil textures. The calibration process was based on the data provided by the capacitive sensors and the continuously and parallelly measured soil moisture content by the thermo-gravimetric method. It can be stated that the response of the sensors to changes in soil moisture differs from each other, which was also greatly influenced by different soil textures. Therefore, the calibration according to soil texture was required to ensure adequate measurement accuracy. After the calibration, it was found that a polynomial calibration function (R2 ≥ 0.89) was the most appropriate way for modelling the behaviour of the sensors at different soil textures.

    KEY WORDS: IoT; Precision Agriculture; Low-cost capacitive soil moisture sensor; Thermo-gravimetric method; Repeatability and Reproducibility study; Non-linear regression.

    Address:
    - István Mihály Kulmány, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Vár tér 2, 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: kulmanyi@gmail.com)
    - Ákos Bede-Fazekas, Centre for Ecological Research, Institute of Ecology and Botany, Alkotmány utca 2-4, 2163 Vácrátót, Hungary. Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental and Landscape Geography, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, 1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Ana Beslin, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21102 Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia.
    - Zsolt Giczi, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Vár tér 2, 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary.
    - Gábor Milics, Institute of Agronomy, Department of Precision Agriculture and Digital Farming, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly utca 1, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary.
    - Barna Kovács, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Bem rkp. 47, 1027 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Márk Kovács, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3, 1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Bálint Ambrus, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Vár tér 2, 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary.
    - László Bede, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Vár tér 2, 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary.
    - Viktória Vona, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Vár tér 2, 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 3 - Early View, 2022, p. 1 - 11, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0015
Scientific Paper, English

Ágota Horel, Tibor Zsigmond, Sándor Molnár, Imre Zagyva, Zsófia Bakacsi: Long-term soil water content dynamics under different land uses in a small agricultural catchment

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  • Longer term monitoring of soil water content at a catchment scale is a key to understanding its dynamics, which can assist stakeholders in decision making processes, such as land use change or irrigation programs. Soil water monitoring in agriculturally dominated catchments can help in developing soil water retention measurements, for assessment of land use change, or adaptation of specific land management systems to climate change. The present study was carried out in the Pannonian region (Upper-Balaton, Hungary) on Cambisols and Calcisols between 2015 and 2021. Soil water content (SWC) dynamics were investigated under different land use types (vineyard, grassland, and forest) at three depths (15, 40, and 70 cm). The meteorological data show a continuous decrease in cumulative precipitation over time during the study with an average of 26% decrease observed between 2016 and 2020, while average air temperatures were similar for all the studied years. Corresponding to the lower precipitation amounts, a clear decrease in the average SWC was observed at all the land use sites, with 13.4%, 37.7%, and 29.3% lower average SWC for the grassland, forest, and vineyard sites, respectively, from 2016 to 2020 (measured at the 15 cm depth of the soil). Significant differences in SWC were observed between the annual and seasonal numbers within a given land use (p < 0.05). The lowest average SWC was observed at the grassland (11.7%) and the highest at the vineyard (28.3%). The data showed an increasing average soil temperature, with an average 6.3% higher value in 2020 compared to 2016. The grassland showed the highest (11.3 °C) and the forest soil the lowest (9.7 °C) average soil temperatures during the monitoring period. The grassland had the highest number of days with the SWC below the wilting point, while the forest had the highest number of days with the SWC optimal for the plants.

    KEY WORDS: Forest; Grassland; Soil water regime; Vineyard; Climate change.

    Address:
    - Ágota Horel, Centre for Agricultural Research, Institute for Soil Sciences, Herman O. St. 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Tibor Zsigmond, Centre for Agricultural Research, Institute for Soil Sciences, Herman O. St. 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Sándor Molnár, Centre for Agricultural Research, Institute for Soil Sciences, Herman O. St. 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+36-30-564-1384 Fax.: Email: molnar.sandor@atk.hu)
    - Imre Zagyva, Centre for Agricultural Research, Institute for Soil Sciences, Herman O. St. 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Zsófia Bakacsi, Centre for Agricultural Research, Institute for Soil Sciences, Herman O. St. 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 70, No. 3 - Early View, 2022, p. 1 - 7, doi: 10.2478/johh-2022-0016
Scientific Paper, English

Miroslav Fér, Antonín Nikodem, Sára Trejbalová, Aleš Klement, Lenka Pavlů, Radka Kodešová: How various mulch materials can affect the soil hydro-physical properties

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  • An application of different mulch materials may lead to changes in soil properties. Our previous study, focused on the impact of various mulches during the 4-year period, showed that the change in some properties can be very rapid (e.g., soil pH), but in other cases such as hydraulic properties, the changes can be gradual. To find out, whether the extension of the mulching period will further affect the studied soil properties, the experiment continued for another 2 years. Differences between values of organic carbon content (Cox), soil physical quality (Sinf), gravitational water (GW) and readily available water (RAW) of soils not covered by any mulch and under various mulches (bark chips; wood chips; wheat straw; Agrotex EKO+ decomposable matting; polypropylene fabric covered bark chips; crushed stone) were much larger than those observed in our previous study. On the other hand, the opposite trend was observed for the water stable aggregates (WSA) index or soil pH. Differences between additionally measured hydraulic conductivities at the pressure head of −2 cm and repellency index (RI) were mostly insignificant. Results indicated that organic mulches can either positively (e.g., increase WSA index and Cox, and decrease GW) or negatively (e.g., decrease Sinf and RAW, and increase RI) affect soil properties.

    KEY WORDS: Mulch; Aggregate stability; Soil hydraulic properties; Soil physical quality; Repellency index; Readily available water.

    Address:
    - Miroslav Fér, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 16500, Praha Suchdol, Czech Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: mfer@af.czu.cz)
    - Antonín Nikodem, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 16500, Praha Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    - Sára Trejbalová, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 16500, Praha Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    - Aleš Klement, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 16500, Praha Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    - Lenka Pavlů, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 16500, Praha Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    - Radka Kodešová, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 16500, Praha Suchdol, Czech Republic.

     




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841 04 Bratislava
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