Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 1 - 11, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0009
Scientific Paper, English

Stella Gypser, Maik Veste, Thomas Fischer, Philipp Lange: Infiltration and water retention of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils of former open-cast lignite mining sites in Brandenburg, north-east Germany

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  • Investigations were done on two former open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation, an artificial sand dune in Welzow Süd, and a forest plantation in Schlabendorf Süd (Brandenburg, Germany). The aim was to associate the topsoil hydrological characteristics of green algae dominated as well as moss and soil lichen dominated biological soil crusts during crustal succession with their water retention and the repellency index on sandy soils under temperate climate and different reliefs. The investigation of the repellency index showed on the one hand an increase due to the cross-linking of sand particles by green algae which resulted in clogging of pores. On the other hand, the occurrence of moss plants led to a decrease of the repellency index due to absorption caused by bryophytes. The determination of the water retention curves showed an increase of the water holding capacity, especially in conjunction with the growth of green algae layer. The pore-related van Genuchten parameter indicate a clay-like behaviour of the developed soil crusts. Because of the inhomogeneous distribution of lichens and mosses as well as the varying thickness of green algae layers, the water retention differed between the study sites and between samples of similar developmental stages. However, similar tendencies of water retention and water repellency related to the soil crust formation were observed. Biological soil crusts should be considered after disturbances in the context of reclamation measures, because the initial development of green algae biocrusts lead to an increasing repellency index, while the occurrence of mosses and a gain in organic matter enhance the water holding capacity. Thus, the succession of biocrusts and their small-scale succession promote the development of soil and ecosystem.

    KEY WORDS: Repellency index; pF-curves; Water holding capacity; Biological soil crusts.

    Address:
    - Stella Gypser, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Chair of Soil Protection and Recultivation, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 6, 03046 Cottbus, Germany. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+49 0355/69 3318 Fax.: +49 0355/69 2323 Email: stella.gypser@b-tu.de)
    - Maik Veste, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Chair of Soil Protection and Recultivation, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 6, 03046 Cottbus, Germany. University of Hohenheim, Institute of Botany - Experimental Ecology, Garbenstrasse 30, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany.
    - Thomas Fischer, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Central Analytical Laboratory, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 6, 03046 Cottbus, Germany.
    - Philipp Lange, Dresden University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Mommsenstraße 4, 01062 Dresden, Germany.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 12 - 22, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0011
Scientific Paper, English

Pavel Krajčí, Ladislav Holko, Juraj Parajka: Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

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  • Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL) elevation, snow cover area (SCA) and depletion (SCD) in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians). Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005) and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005) with resolution 500 m are used. The results indicate three groups of basins with similar variability in the SL elevation. The first includes basins with maximum elevations above 1500 m a.s.l. (Poprad, Upper Váh, Hron, Hornád). Winter median SL is equal or close to minimum basin elevation in snow rich winters in these basins. Even in snow poor winters is SL close to the basin mean. Second group consists of mid-altitude basins with maximum elevation around 1000 m a.s.l. (Slaná, Ipeľ, Nitra, Bodrog). Median SL varies between 150 and 550 m a.s.l. in January and February, which represents approximately 40–80% snow coverage. Median SL is near the maximum basin elevation during the snow poor winters. This means that basins are in such winters snow free approximately 50% of days in January and February. The third group includes the Rudava/Myjava and Lower Váh/Danube. These basins have their maximum altitude less than 700 m a.s.l. and only a small part of these basins is covered with snow even during the snow rich winters. The evaluation of SCA shows that snow cover typically starts in December and last to February. In the highest basins (Poprad, Upper Váh), the snow season sometimes tends to start earlier (November) and lasts to March/April. The median of SCA is, however, less than 10% in these months. The median SCA of entire winter season is above 70% in the highest basins (Poprad, Upper Váh, Hron), ranges between 30–60% in the mid-altitude basins (Hornád, Slaná, Ipeľ, Nitra, Bodrog) and is less than 1% in the Myjava/Rudava and Lower Váh/Danube basins. However, there is a considerable variability in seasonal coverage between the years. Our results indicate that there is no significant trend in mean SCA in the period 2001–2014, but periods with larger and smaller SCA exist. Winters in the period 2002–2006 have noticeably larger mean SCA than those in the period 2007–2012. Snow depletion curves (SDC) do not have a simple evolution in most winters. The snowmelt tends to start between early February and the end of March. The snowmelt lasts between 8 and 15 days on average in lowland and high mountain basins, respectively. Interestingly, the variability in SDC between the winters is much larger than between the basins.

    KEY WORDS: MODIS; Snow line; Snow cover; Snow depletion curves; Slovakia.

    Address:
    - Pavel Krajčí, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: krajci@uh.savba.sk)
    - Ladislav Holko, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovak Republic.
    - Juraj Parajka, Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/222, Vienna, Austria. Centre for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/222, Vienna, Austria.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 23 - 29, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0007
Scientific Paper, English

Andrzej Brandyk, Adam Kiczko, Grzegorz Majewski, Małgorzata Kleniewska, Marcin Krukowski: Uncertainty of Deardorff’s soil moisture model based on continuous TDR measurements for sandy loam soil

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  • Knowledge on soil moisture is indispensable for a range of hydrological models, since it exerts a considerable influence on runoff conditions. Proper tools are nowadays applied in order to gain in-sight into soil moisture status, especially of uppermost soil layers, which are prone to weather changes and land use practices. In order to establish relationships between meteorological conditions and topsoil moisture, a simple model would be required, characterized by low computational effort, simple structure and low number of identified and calibrated parameters. We demonstrated, that existing model for shallow soils, considering mass exchange between two layers ( the upper and the lower), as well as with the atmosphere and subsoil, worked well for sandy loam with deep ground water table in Warsaw conurbation. GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation) linked with GSA (Global Sensitivity Analysis) provided for final determination of parameter values and model confidence ranges. Including the uncertainty in a model structure, caused that the median soil moisture solution of the GLUE was shifted from the one optimal in deterministic sense. From the point of view of practical model application, the main shortcoming were the underestimated water exchange rates between the lower soil layer (ranging from the depth of 0.1 to 0.2 m below ground level) and subsoil. General model quality was found to be satisfactory and promising for its utilization for establishing measures to regain retention in urbanized conditions.

    KEY WORDS: Soil moisture; Modelling; Parameters uncertainty; GSA-GLUE analysis.

    Address:
    - Andrzej Brandyk, Water Center Laboratory, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences WULS-SGGW, 166 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa, Poland. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+48 225935377 Fax.: Email: andrzej_brandyk@sggw.pl)
    - Adam Kiczko, Department of Hydraulics, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 166 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa, Poland.
    - Grzegorz Majewski, Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 166 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa, Poland.
    - Małgorzata Kleniewska, Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 166 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa, Poland.
    - Marcin Krukowski, Department of Hydraulics, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 166 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa, Poland.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 30 - 44, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0002
Scientific Paper, English

Paulo H. S. Moreira, Martinus Th. van Genuchten, Helcio R. B. Orlande, Renato M. Cotta: Bayesian estimation of the hydraulic and solute transport properties of a small-scale unsaturated soil column

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  • In this study the hydraulic and solute transport properties of an unsaturated soil were estimated simultaneously from a relatively simple small-scale laboratory column infiltration/outflow experiment. As governing equations we used the Richards equation for variably saturated flow and a physical non-equilibrium dual-porosity type formulation for solute transport. A Bayesian parameter estimation approach was used in which the unknown parameters were estimated with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method through implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Sensitivity coefficients were examined in order to determine the most meaningful measurements for identifying the unknown hydraulic and transport parameters. Results obtained using the measured pressure head and solute concentration data collected during the unsaturated soil column experiment revealed the robustness of the proposed approach.

    KEY WORDS: Markov Chain Monte Carlo method; Metropolis-Hastings algorithm; Hydraulic parameters; Transport parameters; Soil column experiment.

    Address:
    - Paulo H. S. Moreira, DEM/PEM – Politécnica/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Caixa Postal 68503, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Brazil.
    - Martinus Th. van Genuchten, DEM/PEM – Politécnica/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Caixa Postal 68503, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Brazil.
    - Helcio R. B. Orlande, DEM/PEM – Politécnica/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Caixa Postal 68503, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Brazil. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: helcio@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br)
    - Renato M. Cotta, DEM/PEM – Politécnica/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Caixa Postal 68503, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Brazil.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 45 - 55, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0003
Scientific Paper, English

Francesca Campomaggiore, Cristiana Di Cristo, Michele Iervolino, Andrea Vacca: Inlet effects on roll-wave development in shallow turbulent open-channel flows

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  • The present work investigates the effect of the flow profile induced by an inlet condition on the roll-wave evolution in turbulent clear-water flows. The study employs theoretical and numerical analyses. Firstly, the influence of the inlet condition on the spatial evolution of a single perturbation in a hypercritical flow is examined through the expansion near a wavefront analysis. The results show that an accelerated unperturbed profile reduces the disturbance spatial growth. A decelerated profile causes an increase. The effect of the flow profile on the spatial evolution of rollwave trains is then numerically investigated solving the Saint Venant equations with a second-order Runge-Kutta Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) Finite Volume scheme. The numerical simulations comply with the analytical results for the initial and transition phases of the roll-wave development. The unperturbed profile influences even the roll-waves statistical characteristics in the final stage, with a more evident effect in case of accelerated profiles. The influence of the flow profile should be therefore accounted for in the formulation of predictive criteria for roll-waves appearance based on the estimation of the disturbance spatial growth rate.

    KEY WORDS: Open-channel flows; Roll-waves; Hypercritial flows; Numerical simulation.

    Address:
    - Francesca Campomaggiore, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura, Universita di Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy.
    - Cristiana Di Cristo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Universita di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (FR), Italy.
    - Michele Iervolino, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Design, Edilizia ed Ambiente, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE), Italy.
    - Andrea Vacca, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Design, Edilizia ed Ambiente, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE), Italy. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+39 081 5010344 Fax.: + 39 081 5037370 Email: vacca@unina.it)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 56 - 66, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0004
Scientific Paper, English

Mohamed Gharbi, Amel Soualmia, Denis Dartus, Lucien Masbernat: Floods effects on rivers morphological changes application to the Medjerda River in Tunisia

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  • In Tunisia especially in the Medjerda watershed the recurring of floods becoming more remarkable. In order to limit this risk, several studies were performed to examine the Medjerda hydrodynamic. The analysis of results showed that the recurrences of floods at the Medjerda watershed is strongly related to the sediment transport phenomena. Initially, a one dimensional modelling was conducted in order to determine the sediment transport rate, and to visualize the river morphological changes during major floods. In continuity of this work, we will consider a two-dimensional model for predicting the amounts of materials transported by the Medjerda River. The goal is to visualize the Medjerda behaviour during extreme events and morphological changes occurred following the passage of the spectacular flood of January 2003. As a conclusion for this study, a comparative analysis was performed between 1D and 2D models results. The objective of these comparisons is to visualize the benefits and limitations of tested models. The analysis of the results demonstrate that 2D model is able to calculate the flow variation, sediment transport rates, and river morphological changes during extreme events for complicated natural domains with high accuracy comparing with 1D Model.

    KEY WORDS: Floods; Hydrodynamics; Sediment transport; Modelling; River morphology.

    Address:
    - Mohamed Gharbi, University of Carthage, National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia, Laboratory of Water Science & Technology, Tunis, Tunisia.
    - Amel Soualmia, University of Carthage, National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia, Laboratory of Water Science & Technology, Tunis, Tunisia. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: amel.inat@hotmail.fr)
    - Denis Dartus, University of Toulouse, National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Toulouse, France.
    - Lucien Masbernat, University of Toulouse, National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Toulouse, France.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 67 - 74, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0013
Scientific Paper, English

Oscar Herrera-Granados, Stanisław W. Kostecki: Numerical and physical modeling of water flow over the ogee weir of the new Niedów barrage

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  • In this paper, two- and three-dimensional numerical modeling is applied in order to simulate water flow behavior over the new Niedów barrage in South Poland. The draining capacity of one of the flood alleviation structures (ogee weir) for exploitation and catastrophic conditions was estimated. In addition, the output of the numerical models is compared with experimental data. The experiments demonstrated that the draining capacity of the barrage alleviation scheme is sufficiently designed for catastrophic scenarios if water is flowing under steady flow conditions. Nevertheless, the new cofferdam, which is part of the temporal reconstruction works, is affecting the draining capacity of the whole low-head barrage project.

    KEY WORDS: Hydraulic similarity; Ogee weir; Discharge coefficient; Physical modeling; 2D and 3D numerical modeling; Cofferdam.

    Address:
    - Oscar Herrera-Granados, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, Wroclaw 50-370, Poland. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+48 71 320 2953 Fax.: Email: Oscar.Herrera-Granados@pwr.edu.pl)
    - Stanisław W. Kostecki, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, Wroclaw 50-370, Poland.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 75 - 82, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0014
Scientific Paper, English

Jun Wang, Jian Hua, Jueyi Sui, Peng Wu, Tao Liu, Pangpang Chen: The impact of bridge pier on ice jam evolution – an experimental study

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  • The ice jam in a river can significantly change the flow field in winter and early spring. The presence of bridge piers further complicates the hydraulic process by interacting between the ice jam and bridge piers. Using the data collected from experiments in a laboratory flume, the evolution of an ice jam around bridge piers having three different diameters has been investigated in this study. Compared to results without-pier, it was found that the formation of an ice jam in the downstream of bridge pier is faster than that in the upstream. The thickness distribution of the ice jam shows clearly different characteristics in front and behind of bridge piers at different stages of the ice jam.

    KEY WORDS: Boundary condition; Bridge pier; Ice jam; Ice accumulation.

    Address:
    - Jun Wang, School of Civil Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, Anhui, China.
    - Jian Hua, School of Civil Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, Anhui, China.
    - Jueyi Sui, Environmental Engineering, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: jueyi.sui@unbc.ca)
    - Peng Wu, Environmental Systems Engineering, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Pkwy, Regina, SK, Canada.
    - Tao Liu, China Water Northeastern Investigation, Design and Research Ltd., Changchun, China.
    - Pangpang Chen, School of Civil Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, Anhui, China.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 83 - 90, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0008
Scientific Paper, English

Akbar Safarzadeh, Wernher Brevis: Assessment of 3D-RANS models for the simulation of topographically forced shallow flows

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  • In this work the performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations to predict the flow structure developed by the presence of a sidewall obstacle in a uniform open-channel shallow flow is discussed. The tested geometry was selected due to its important role in several fluvial applications, such as the control of riverbank erosion and the creation of improved ecological conditions in river restoration applications. The results are compared against experimental laboratory velocity fields obtained after Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) measurements. It is shown that the length of reattachment of the separated shear layer generated by the obstacle is well predicted by a Reynolds Stress Model, while classical two-equation models show important limitations. All the performed RANS simulations are unable to properly predict the formation of a secondary gyre region, which develops immediately downstream the obstacle.

    KEY WORDS: Shallow flow; RANS; SPIV; Side obstacle; Shear layer; Turbulence.

    Address:
    - Akbar Safarzadeh, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Daneshgah Street, 56199-11367, Ardabil, Iran. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: safarzadeh@uma.ac.ir)
    - Wernher Brevis, Structural and Civil Engineering Department, University of Sheffield, Sir Frederick Mappin Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 64, No. 1, 2016, p. 91 - 96, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0012
Scientific Paper, English

Lubomír Jaroš, Miloš Starý, Lucie Březková: A stochastic approach to the operative control of flood flows through a reservoir

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  • The contribution focuses on the design of a control algorithm aimed at the operative control of runoff water from a reservoir during flood situations. Management is based on the stochastically specified forecast of water inflow into the reservoir. From a mathematical perspective, the solved task presents the control of a dynamic system whose predicted hydrological input (water inflow) is characterised by significant uncertainty. The algorithm uses a combination of simulation model data, in which the position of the bottom outlets is sought via nonlinear optimisation methods, and artificial intelligence methods (adaptation and fuzzy model). The task is written in the technical computing language MATLAB using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox.

    KEY WORDS: Operative control of reservoir; Artificial intelligence; Fuzzy inference system; Neural networks; Stochastic forecast; Stochastic control of reservoir; Principle of adaptation.

    Address:
    - Lubomír Jaroš, Povodí Odry, State Enterprise, Varenská 3101/49, 701 26 Ostrava, Czech Republic. Brno Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Landscape Water Management, Žižkova 17, 602 00, Brno, Czech Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420-596657102 Fax.: +420-596612666 Email: lubomir.jaros@pod.cz)
    - Miloš Starý, Brno Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Landscape Water Management, Žižkova 17, 602 00, Brno, Czech Republic.
    - Lucie Březková, Brno Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Landscape Water Management, Žižkova 17, 602 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

     




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