Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 93 - 101, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0012
Scientific Paper, English

Li Chen, Long Xiang, Michael H. Young, Jun Yin, Zhongbo Yu, Martinus Th. van Genuchten: Optimal parameters for the Green-Ampt infiltration model under rainfall conditions

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  • The Green-Ampt (GA) model is widely used in hydrologic studies as a simple, physically-based method to estimate infiltration processes. The accuracy of the model for applications under rainfall conditions (as opposed to initially ponded situations) has not been studied extensively. We compared calculated rainfall infiltration results for various soils obtained using existing GA parameterizations with those obtained by solving the Richards equation for variably saturated flow. Results provided an overview of GA model performance evaluated by means of a root-meansquare- error-based objective function across a large region in GA parameter space as compared to the Richards equation, which showed a need for seeking optimal GA parameters. Subsequent analysis enabled the identification of optimal GA parameters that provided a close fit with the Richards equation. The optimal parameters were found to substantially outperform the standard theoretical parameters, thus improving the utility and accuracy of the GA model for infiltration simulations under rainfall conditions. A sensitivity analyses indicated that the optimal parameters may change for some rainfall scenarios, but are relatively stable for high-intensity rainfall events.

    KEY WORDS: Green-Ampt; Infiltration; Rainfall; Optimal parameters.

    Address:
    - Li Chen, State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China. Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institute, 755 E. Flamingo Rd., Las Vegas, NV 89119, USA. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: li.chen@dri.edu)
    - Long Xiang, Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institute, 755 E. Flamingo Rd., Las Vegas, NV 89119, USA.
    - Michael H. Young, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    - Jun Yin, Ministry of Forests, Land & Natural Resource Operation, Prince George, BC, Canada.
    - Zhongbo Yu, State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China. Department of Geoscience, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA.
    - Martinus Th. van Genuchten, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 102 - 109, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0020
Scientific Paper, English

Ahmad Farrokhian Firouzi, Mehdi Homaee, Erwin Klumpp, Roy Kasteel, Wolfgang Tappe: Bacteria transport and retention in intact calcareous soil columns under saturated flow conditions

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  • Study of bacterial transport and retention in soil is important for various environmental applications such as groundwater contamination and bioremediation of soil and water. The main objective of this research was to quantitatively assess bacterial transport and deposition under saturated conditions in calcareous soil. A series of leaching experiments was conducted on two undisturbed soil columns. Breakthrough curves of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Cl were measured. After the leaching experiment, spatial distribution of bacteria retention in the soil columns was determined. The HYDRUS-1D one- and two-site kinetic models were used to predict the transport and deposition of bacteria in soil. The results indicated that the two-site model fits the observed data better than one-site kinetic model. Bacteria interaction with the soil of kinetic site 1 revealed relatively fast attachment and slow detachment, whereas attachment to and detachment of bacteria from kinetic site 2 was fast. Fast attachment and slow detachment of site 1 can be attributed to soil calcium carbonate that has favorable attachment sites for bacteria. The detachment rate was less than 0.02 of the attachment rate, indicating irreversible attachment of bacteria. High reduction rate of bacteria was also attributed to soil calcium carbonate.

    KEY WORDS: Bacteria transport; Calcareous soil; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Saturated flow.

    Address:
    - Ahmad Farrokhian Firouzi, Department of Soil Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Ale Ahmad Highway, Tehran 14155-336, Iran.
    - Mehdi Homaee, Department of Soil Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Ale Ahmad Highway, Tehran 14155-336, Iran. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+982166026522 Fax.: +982166026524 Email: mhomaee@modares.ac.ir)
    - Erwin Klumpp, Agrosphere Institute, IBG-3, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen Str., 52428 Jülich, Germany.
    - Roy Kasteel, Agrosphere Institute, IBG-3, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen Str., 52428 Jülich, Germany.
    - Wolfgang Tappe, Agrosphere Institute, IBG-3, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen Str., 52428 Jülich, Germany.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 110 - 116, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0023
Scientific Paper, English

Vladimír Klípa, Michal Sněhota, Michal Dohnal: New automatic minidisk infiltrometer: design and testing

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  • Soil hydraulic conductivity is a key parameter to predict water flow through the soil profile. We have developed an automatic minidisk infiltrometer (AMI) to enable easy measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using the tension infiltrometer method in the field. AMI senses the cumulative infiltration by recording change in buoyancy force acting on a vertical solid bar fixed in the reservoir tube of the infiltrometer. Performance of the instrument was tested in the laboratory and in two contrasting catchments at three sites with different land use. Hydraulic conductivities determined using AMI were compared with earlier manually taken readings. The results of laboratory testing demonstrated high accuracy and robustness of the AMI measurement. Field testing of AMI proved the suitability of the instrument for use in the determination of sorptivity and near saturated hydraulic conductivity.

    KEY WORDS: Tension infiltrometer; Hydraulic conductivity; Sorptivity; Automated measurement; Infiltration experiment; Zhang’s method.

    Address:
    - Vladimír Klípa, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague 6, Czech Republic.
    - Michal Sněhota, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague 6, Czech Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420 224354748 Fax.: +420 233337005 Email: michal.snehota@fsv.cvut.cz)
    - Michal Dohnal, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague 6, Czech Republic.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 117 - 123, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0011
Scientific Paper, English

Takeshi Nakamichi, Toshitsugu Moroizumi: Applicability of three complementary relationship models for estimating actual evapotranspiration in urban area

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  • The characteristics of evapotranspiration estimated by the complementary relationship actual evapotranspiration (CRAE), the advection-aridity (AA), and the modified advection-aridity (MAA) models were investigated in six pairs of rural and urban areas of Japan in order to evaluate the applicability of the three models the urban area. The main results are as follows: 1) The MAA model could apply to estimating the actual evapotranspiration in the urban area. 2) The actual evapotranspirations estimated by the three models were much less in the urban area than in the rural. 3) The difference among the estimated values of evapotranspiration in the urban areas was significant, depending on each model, while the difference among the values in the rural areas was relatively small. 4) All three models underestimated the actual evapotranspiration in the urban areas from humid surfaces where water and green spaces exist. 5) Each model could take the effect of urbanization into account.

    KEY WORDS: CARE model; AA model; MAA model; Potential evapotranspiration; Urban; Rural.

    Address:
    - Takeshi Nakamichi, Shimonoseki - city, 1-1 Nabe-cho, Shimonoseki city, Yamaguchi 750-8521, Japan.
    - Toshitsugu Moroizumi, Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University 1-1, Tsushima-Naka, 3-chome, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+81-86-251-8877 Fax.: +81-86-251-8877 Email: morot@okayama-u.ac.jp)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 124 - 133, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0013
Scientific Paper, English

Nadezhda Nadezhdina, Jan Čermák, Alec Downey, Valeriy Nadezhdin, Martti Perämäki, Jorge Soares David, Clara A. Pinto, Teresa Soares David: Sap flow index as an indicator of water storage use

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  • Symmetrical temperature difference also known as the sap flow index (SFI) forms the basis of the Heat Field Deformation sap flow measurement and is simultaneously collected whilst measuring the sap flow. SFI can also be measured by any sap flow method applying internal continuous heating through the additional installation of an axial differential thermocouple equidistantly around a heater. In earlier research on apple trees SFI was found to be an informative parameter for tree physiological studies, namely for assessing the contribution of stem water storage to daily transpiration. The studies presented in this work are based on the comparative monitoring of SFI and diameter in stems of different species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea omorika, Pinus sylvestris) and tree sizes. The ability of SFI to follow the patterns of daily stem water storage use was empirically confirmed by our data. Additionally, as the HFD multipointsensors can measure sap flow at several stem sapwood depths, their use allowed to analyze the use of stored water in different xylem layers through SFI records. Radial and circumferential monitoring of SFI on large cork oak trees provided insight into the relative magnitude and timing of the contribution of water stored in different sapwood layers or stem sectors to transpiration.

    KEY WORDS: Diameter fluctuation; Heat field deformation; Multi-point sensor; Symmetrical temperature difference; Radial and circumferential variations; Sap flow measurement; Tree; Transpiration.

    Address:
    - Nadezhda Nadezhdina, Mendel University, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420 545 134 181 Fax.: Email: nadezdan@mendelu.cz)
    - Jan Čermák, Mendel University, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
    - Alec Downey, ICT International Pty Ltd, PO Box 503 Armidale NSW 2350, Australia. School of Plant Biology, Botany, Horticulture and Hydrology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
    - Valeriy Nadezhdin, Mendel University, Zemedelska 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
    - Martti Perämäki, University of Helsinki, Yliopistonkatu 4, 00100 Helsinki, Finland.
    - Jorge Soares David, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal. Centro de Estudos Florestais, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal.
    - Clara A. Pinto, Instituto Nacional de Investigaçao Agrária e Veterinária I.P., Quinta do Marques, Av. da República, 2780-159 Oeiras, Portugal.
    - Teresa Soares David, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal. Instituto Nacional de Investigaçao Agrária e Veterinária I.P., Quinta do Marques, Av. da República, 2780-159 Oeiras, Portugal.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 134 - 144, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0014
Scientific Paper, English

Nejc Bezak, Alja Horvat, Mojca Šraj: Analysis of flood events in Slovenian streams

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  • The detailed analysis of individual flood event elements, including peak discharge (Q), flood event volume (V), and flood event duration (D), is an important step for improving our understanding of complex hydrological processes. More than 2,500 flood events were defined based on the annual maximum (AM) peak discharge from 50 Slovenian gauging stations with catchment areas of between 10 and 10,000 km2. After baseflow separation, the stations were clustered into homogeneous groups and the relationships between the flood event elements and several catchment characteristics were assessed. Different types of flood events were characteristic of different groups. The flashiness of the stream is significantly connected with mean annual precipitation and location of the station. The results indicate that some climatic factors like mean annual precipitation and catchment related attributes as for example catchment area have notable influence on the flood event elements. When assessing the dependency between the pairs of flood event elements (Q, V, D), the highest correlation coefficients were obtained for the Q-V pair. The smallest correlations or no correlations were observed between the Q and D variables.

    KEY WORDS: Baseflow separation; Catchment characteristics; Flood event; Comparative hydrology.

    Address:
    - Nejc Bezak, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    - Alja Horvat, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    - Mojca Šraj, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+386 1 425 40 52 Fax.: +386 1 251 98 97 Email: mojca.sraj@fgg.uni-lj.si)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 145 - 153, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0017
Scientific Paper, English

Bogusław Pawłowski: Determinants of change in the duration of ice phenomena on the Vistula River in Toruń

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  • Winter season temperatures are becoming warmer. However, the transformation of the ice regime on the Vistula River in Toruń has also been affected by river engineering. In particular, the construction and operation of the Włocławek Dam had a significant impact on ice processes. The article presents the results of an analysis determining the contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors to the duration of ice phenomena and ice cover on the Vistula River in the city of Toruń. Compared to the end of the nineteenth century, there has been a reduction in the duration of ice phenomena from 88 to 53 days and of ice cover from 40 to 7 days (in the period of 1882–2011). The article compares the duration of ice cover and winter temperature in three different periods: before the completion of river engineering works (1882–1907); for the controlled river (1908–1969), and for the controlled river with the Włocławek Dam upstream of Toruń (1970–2011). The results showed a significant role of these anthropogenic factors in the changes of the ice cover duration on the Vistula River in Toruń.

    KEY WORDS: Ice phenomena; Vistula River; Natural factor; Human impact.

    Address:
    - Bogusław Pawłowski, Department of Hydrology and Water Management, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Lwowska 1 87-100 Toruń, Poland. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: bogus@umk.pl)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 154 - 163, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0019
Scientific Paper, English

Elham Fazel Najafabadi, Hossein Afzalimehr, Jueyi Sui: Turbulence characteristics of favorable pressure gradient flows in gravel-bed channel with vegetated walls

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  • Field observations showed that in many gravel-bed rivers, rice stems and gravel interact with each other and affect the flow structure. This calls to conduct research in more details in laboratory to better understand impacts of interaction between rice stems and gravel bed rivers on the flow structure. The outcome of such investigations can improve the estimation of drag coefficient in hydrodynamic models. Experiments were carried out in a flume with gravel bed and the vegetated vertical flume walls to investigate turbulence characteristics under favorable pressure gradient flows. Results showed that the stress fraction involves both the sweep and ejection dominance near the vegetated flume walls, showing no negative Reynolds shear stress near water surface. The values of exuberance ratio play a significant role on the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress which varies with the distance from the vegetation. Quadrant analysis reveals that a major part of the momentum flux is transported during a short period of strong turbulence activity near the bed at the central axis. Augmentation of the hole size makes difference between contributions of sweep and ejection with those of the outward and inward interactions near the bed, however, the hole size doesn’t play any role near the water surface.

    KEY WORDS: Favorable pressure gradient flow; Vegetation; Gravel; Quadrant analysis; Stress fraction; Reynolds stress.

    Address:
    - Elham Fazel Najafabadi, Department of Water Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.
    - Hossein Afzalimehr, Department of Water Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.
    - Jueyi Sui, Environmental Engineering Program, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: jueyi.sui@unbc.ca)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 164 - 171, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0026
Scientific Paper, English

Jaromír Říha, Zbyněk Zachoval: Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

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  • Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad–crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

    KEY WORDS: Broad-crested side weir; Experimental research; Flow characteristics; Hydraulics.

    Address:
    - Jaromír Říha, Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Water Structures, Veveří 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420 541147753 Fax.: +420 541147752 Email: riha.j@fce.vutbr.cz)
    - Zbyněk Zachoval, Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Water Structures, Veveří 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 63, No. 2, 2015, p. 172 - 180, doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0018
Scientific Paper, English

Arnold M. Talmon: Linear stability analysis reveals exclusion zone for sliding bed transport

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  • A bend or any another pipe component disturbs solids transport in pipes. Longitudinal pressure profiles downstream of such a component may show a stationary transient harmonic wave, as revealed by a recent settling slurry laboratory experiment. Therefore the fundamental transient response of the two-layer model for fully stratified flow is investigated as a first approach. A linear stability analysis of the sliding bed configuration is conducted. No stationary transient harmonic waves are found in this analysis, but adaptation lengths for exponential recovery are quantified. An example calculation is given for a 0.1 m diameter pipeline. Also consequences for long stretches of pipe line emerged. A so far undiscovered exclusion zone is found in the I-V diagram. This exclusion zone is situated adjacent to the deposit limit velocity locus curve. This simplified physical system reveals that flow velocities should be taken about 10% greater than the calculated maximum deposit limit velocity for stable converging flow.

    KEY WORDS: Stratification; Hydrotransport; Transients; Bed layer.

    Address:
    - Arnold M. Talmon, Delft University of Technology, Dept. 3Me, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, The Netherlands. Deltares, Delft, PO Box 177, 2600 MH, The Netherlands. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: a.m.talmon@tudelft.nl, arno.talmon@deltares.nl)

     




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