Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 3 - 14, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0001
Scientific Paper, English

Viktor I. Vyshnevskyi, Olena A. Donich: Climate change in the Ukrainian Carpathians and its possible impact on river runoff

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  • Based on the results of regular monitoring at 11 meteorological stations in the Ukrainian Carpathians, it was discovered a vivid tendency of air temperature increase. It was defined that thermal gradient in the mountains is much less than it is in the free troposphere; at the small altitude it is larger than it is on the tops of mountains. The largest gradient it is observed in period from March till July, the lowest one in period from November till January. It was revealed the cyclical fluctuations of precipitation, in particular the existence of a modern dry phase. There is a tendency of decrease in wind speed during all seasons, which is more evident in the second part of year. There is also the increase in snow cover depth at high altitude. In spite of climate change the river runoff has not changed essentially for the last decades. Like the precipitation the river runoff is of a cyclic nature too. During the last four decades the increase in evaporation, calculated on the base of water balance, has been observed. There is the tendency of runoff increase in a cold period at the large altitude. In turn the water runoff of rivers, located on low-mountain terrain, decreases in the summer period.

    KEY WORDS: air temperature, precipitation, snow cover, river runoff, the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Address:
    - Viktor I. Vyshnevskyi, National Aviation University, Liubomyra Huzara Ave, 1, 03058, Kyiv, Ukraine (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: vishnev.v@gmail.com)
    - Olena A. Donich, Central Geophysical Observatory, Nauka Ave, 39, 03028, Kyiv, Ukraine

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 15 - 21, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0002
Scientific Paper, English

Emília Bednárová, Juraj Škvarka, Patrik Václavík, Jana Poórová: Water management system Liptovská Mara – Bešeňová in the context of climate change

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  • The presented article briefly presents the impact of the Liptovská Mara – Bešeňová water management system operation on the runoff conditions downstream the dam. The analysis showed that its benefit is evident, especially in the period of extreme hydrological phenomena, with the occurrence of long-lasting low flows or in the event of short-term flood flows. In the area of Liptovská Mara and Bešeňová, this is evident mainly in winter and spring, because of a small amount of liquid precipitation in winter and melting snow in the surrounding mountain massifs in spring. Other hydraulic structures’ actual experiences also convince us that Slovakia’s variability of natural conditions requires artificial water sources. In the interest of raising living standards, protecting the environment, and sustainable development, their role is irreplaceable. In recent decades, there has been an increasing debate about the growing demands on water caused by registered climate change and its effects on weather extremes, as well as human demographic change. History confirms that water reservoirs can reduce negative impacts caused by extreme hydrological phenomena – floods and droughts. In line with the need for adaptation to climate change and sustainable development, in addition to measures close to nature, technical measures, reservoirs, and dams are also necessary.

    KEY WORDS: reservoir, dam, climate change, floods, drought, minimum flow

    Address:
    - Emília Bednárová, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: emilia.bednarova@stuba.sk)
    - Juraj Škvarka, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Patrik Václavík, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Jana Poórová, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 22 - 29, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0003
Scientific Paper, English

Peter Rončák, Peter Šurda, Justína Vitková: The impact of climate change on the hydropower potential: A case study from Topľa River basin

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  • The contribution presents the impact of climate change on the hydropower potential in the Topľa River basin. There are various methodological approaches for determining the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime. One of them is the assessment of the impact of climate change on the hydropower potential. Changed climatic conditions, characterized mainly by changes in precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and air temperature in future decades were predicted by recent outputs of the KNMI and MPI regional climate change models and the A1B emission scenario. To specify changes in long-term mean monthly runoff in comparison with the reference period 1981-2010 and future time horizons, the physically based WetSpa rainfall-runoff model was used. As a basic indicator of the potential for water energy utilization, hydropower potential (HPP) was calculated. An assessment of possible adaptation strategies for water management with respect to the hydropower potential and its utilization for energy production in Slovakia was attempted. The hydropower potential of small, run-of-river and storage hydropower plants is strongly related to the distribution of runoff over the year and can therefore affect not only the total change in runoff but also changes in its distribution in the future.

    KEY WORDS: hydropower potential, the WetSpa model, climate change

    Address:
    - Peter Rončák, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: roncak@uh.savba.sk))
    - Peter Šurda, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Justína Vitková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 30 - 39, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0004
Scientific Paper, English

Miroslav Kandera, Roman Výleta, Anna Liová, Zuzana Danáčová, Ľubica Lovasová: Testing of Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model for water resources management in the Hron River basin

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  • The assessment of water resources and the availability of water in river basins is one of the main tasks enabling efficient water management. One of the bases for the Water Plan of the Slovak Republic is a retrospective water management balance of the amount of surface water in Slovakia, which compares the requirements for water with the usable amount of water. As part of the efforts to improve the plan, the possibility of modelling the water management balance of surface waters using appropriate software for the integrated planning of water resources was outlined. The Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) software was selected to test this modelling according to the current methodology. In the Hron river basin, a time series in a monthly time step of data input in the period 2000–2019 was selected. The focus was on the compatibility of the current methodology of the water management balance and methods of modelling it in the WEAP software. The output is a river basin model capable of producing outputs above the level of the original processing of the water management balance, while the compilation of the graphic and data structure of the modelled river basin is fully automated, mainly by using command lines. This modelling approach has shown that, thanks to the possibility of creating new variables within the data structure, it is possible to achieve the required level of compatibility with the set methodology for water management balances. The results demonstrate that the WEAP could be an easy-to-use model building tool for the optimal and successful development, planning and forecasting of water management in space and over time in Slovakia.

    KEY WORDS: WEAP, Water Resources Management, Water Supply and Demand, Hron River Basin

    Address:
    - Miroslav Kandera, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: miroslav.kandera@stuba.sk)
    - Roman Výleta, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Anna Liová, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Zuzana Danáčová, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Ľubica Lovasová, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 40 - 49, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0005
Scientific Paper, English

Adam Brziak, Martin Kubáň, Silvia Kohnová, Ján Szolgay: Comparison of the variability of snow cover parameters of the HBV model using lumped and distributed precipitation inputs and multi-basin calibration

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  • Snow cover is a significant source of water supply, mainly in mountainous regions, as snow precipitation fundamentally affects a catchment´s water balance. The correct simulation of the water balance with rainfall-runoff models is therefore important for the effective management of water resources. Three basic factors may affect the efficiency of hydrological models and the quality of the modelled outputs: The spatial representativeness of the input data, the model´s structure, and the uncertainties of the model parameters. A comparison of the variability of snow cover parameters and model efficiency of two versions of the HBV model using spatially lumped and distributed precipitation inputs by a multi-basin calibration exercise was performed in this study. Both the lumped and semi-distributed versions of the HBV model were calibrated for discharges, precipitation, and the air temperature on 180 catchments located all over the territory of Austria using data from the period 1991–2000. The analysis focused on the variability of the parameters controlling the snowmelt and the accumulation of the snow components of the two models. The efficiency of the models based on lumped and spatially distributed inputs was compared. The question as to how the catchment´s mean elevation, and the number of days with an air temperature below zero affects the model´s performance was targeted, too.

    KEY WORDS: HBV model, Austria, snow cover parameters, multi- basin calibration

    Address:
    - Adam Brziak, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: adam.brziak@stuba.sk)
    - Martin Kubáň, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Silvia Kohnová, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Ján Szolgay, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 50 - 60, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0006
Scientific Paper, English

Veronika Bačová Mitková, Dana Halmová: Analyzing changes and frequency distribution in maximum runoff volumes with different duration of the Danube River at Bratislava

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  • The volume of the flood waves and its importance is evaluated rarely. But, without these data, it would not be possible to imagine the extreme nature of the distribution system. Several hypotheses claim that more extremes in climatic and hydrologic phenomena are anticipated. In the present study, the annual maximum runoff volumes with t-day durations were calculated for a 144-year series of mean daily discharge of the Danube River at Bratislava gauge (Slovakia). The statistical methods were used to estimate T-year annual maximum runoff volumes and clarify how the annual maximum runoff volumes of the Danube River at Bratislava changed over period 1876–2019 and over dry and wet periods. The conclusion is that the runoff volume regime during floods has not changed significantly during the last 144 years. The annual maximum runoff volumes of the wet period have a greater impact on changes in LPIII exceedance curves at volumes with a time duration more than 20-days.

    KEY WORDS: The Danube River, wave volume, Log-Pearson III probability distribution, T-year volume

    Address:
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: mitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Dana Halmová, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 61 - 69, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0007
Scientific Paper, English

Radoslav Schügerl, Yvetta Velísková, Renáta Dulovičová, Valentín Sočuvka: Influence of submerged vegetation on the Manning´s roughness coefficient for Gabčíkovo – Topoľníky channel

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  • The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of flow conditions along the Gabčíkovo – Topoľníky channel (Žitný Island) on the base of Manning´s roughness coefficient value. This coefficient is not easy to determine and its value is varying constantly during the growing season, especially in a lowland stream with aquatic vegetation occurrence. Vegetation impedes the water flow and may increase flood risks. Thus, determining the effect of aquatic vegetation on flow conditions in streams is very important for estimation of hydrodynamics in natural streams. Measurements performed during growing season at the Gabčíkovo – Topoľníky channel stream were used for an evaluation of vegetation impact on flow conditions. The variations of roughness coefficients of Gabčíkovo – Topoľníky channel are presented in Manning’s equation, and the results reveal that the n value increases with the decreasing of flow depth. Manning’s coefficient value found in this study is in the range of 0.020 to 0.079. The outcomes of this study can be concluded that the variation of Manning's coefficient value is influenced by the cross-section profile characteristic, flow depth, slope of channel, and especially quantity of submerged vegetations in the channel.

    KEY WORDS: Manning´s roughness coefficient, flow conditions, submerged vegetation, River Surveyor

    Address:
    - Radoslav Schügerl, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: schugerl@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Renáta Dulovičová, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Valentín Sočuvka, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 70 - 77, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0008
Scientific Paper, English

Matúš Tomaščík, Zuzana Németová, Michaela Danáčová: Analysis of factors influencing the intensity of soil water erosion

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  • Soil water erosion is one of the most widespread and most damaging processes of degradation in the world. Despite the fact that extensive research on it is carried out by a large number of scientists all around the world, it still occupies a leading position among global threats. Because soil erosion is a complex and quite complicated process, small steps have to be undertaken in order to reach any relevant conclusions. In most cases, in order to simulate soil erosion processes, mathematical models are widely used that are considered useful and helpful tools since the measurement of the erosion of terrain consumes time and space and is impossible in many parts of the world. The aim of the study presented lies in an analysis of elements input into a physically-based erosion model. Those input factors directly influence the model’s end results, i.e., the soil erosion processes. The article attempts to define to what extent they affect the model results and soil erosion processes as well. The specific parameters of the soil erosion model, i.e., resistance to erosion and hydraulic roughness, were determined by simulated rainfall experiments. The results identify changes in the parameters input to the final model results together with different initial conditions.

    KEY WORDS: surface roughness, erosion resistance, soil water erosion, rainfall intensity, surface runoff

    Address:
    - Matúš Tomaščík, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Zuzana Németová, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Michaela Danáčová, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: michaela.danacova@stuba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 78 - 87, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0009
Scientific Paper, English

Renáta Dulovičová, Yvetta Velísková, Radoslav Schügerl: Assesment of selected empirical formulas for computation of saturated hydraulic conductivity

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  • This paper deals with the comparison of empirical formulas used for computation of saturated hydraulic conductivity values Kd. The disturbed samples of bed silts were obtained from the Komárňanský channel at the Žitný ostrov (ŽO), Slovakia. The bed silts were extracted from three different vertical parts of silt - top, middle and bottom part of silt layer in each selected cross-section profile of the Komárňanský channel. Because the samples are disturbed only the empirical formulas based on the grain size analyses were used. The measurements of silting and the extraction of bed silt samples were carried out in 2019. These measurements were used for calculation of saturated hydraulic conductivity values Kd. In the previous study we calculated the values of saturated hydraulic conductivity for disturbed samples Kd according to Bayer – Schweiger; Špaček I and Špaček II empirical formulas. In this current paper we used other empirical formulas based on the grain size analyses. We selected Hazen I.; Bayer; USBR and Orechova formulas which were in the past used in the software Geofil. These valid values Kd reached from 2.00 x10-10 to 9.07 x 10-06 m s-1. We used the number of valid computed results (count) of Kd to determine the formula´s ability to give results meeting the validity requirements. The recommended formula for calculation of Kd of bed silts in Komárňanský channel based on this criterium is Hazen I., which range is 1.16 x 10-8 to 7.25 x 10-06 m s-1.

    KEY WORDS: bed silts, disturbed samples, grain size analysis, saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Address:
    - Renáta Dulovičová, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: dulovicova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Radoslav Schügerl, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 88 - 96, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0010
Scientific Paper, English

Ladislav Holko, Michal Danko, Patrik Sleziak: Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in the tap water in the Jalovecký Creek valley in hydrological years 2018–2020

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  • We present the results of probably the first monitoring of isotopic composition of tap waters in Slovakia. The isotopic composition (δ18O, δ2H) of the tap water in two municipalities in the Jalovecký Creek catchment in northern Slovakia documented their different sources. The tap water in the Liptovský Mikuláš town (part Ondrašová) is on average isotopically similar to the Váh River water while the tap water in the Jalovec village is similar to the Jalovecký Creek. The temporal variability of the isotopic composition of both tap waters shows the contribution of the isotopically lighter snowmelt water. The consistently high electrical conductivity of the tap water in Jalovec suggests that the water comes from the Mesozoic rocks. The ground water in the alluvium of the Jalovecký Creek sampled in a borehole in Jalovec was isotopically similar to local tap water in summer and isotopically heavier in other seasons. The streamflow mean transit times were about a half of those of the tap waters and the borehole ground water (about 2 years versus about 1 year, respectively).

    KEY WORDS: stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, tap water, mountain catchment, mean transit time

    Address:
    - Ladislav Holko, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: holko@uh.savba.sk)
    - Michal Danko, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Patrik Sleziak, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 97 - 105, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0011
Scientific Paper, English

Milan Gomboš, Andrej Tall, Branislav Kandra, Dana Pavelková: Influence of soil type on statistical characteristics and graphical results interpretation of the water storage distribution monitoring along the vertical of the soil profile

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  • The results of authors of submitted article are based on knowledge that soil retention capacity and soil water availability for plants is different in various soil types. Soil types are defined by texture. It is expected that different retention capacity of soil and different availability of soil water for plants is reflected in changes of moisture regime in space and time. Moisture regime monitoring results captures these changes. Changes can be statistically and graphically analysed and interpreted. The results gained from three localities of East Slovakian Lowland (ESL) of the year 2015 extreme drought period were selected for presentation. Examined localities differs by texture compound. Localities are representing the heaviest clay soils, lighter clay-loam-silty soils and the lightest loam soils. Soil volume humidity was monitored into the depth of 1.00 m by layers of 0.10 m. All samples were taken in the same day in examined localities. Descriptive statistics method was used for data processing. Graphical representation is processed in form of chronoizophlets, line and column graphs. Different monitoring results of volume moisture and water storage in different soil types are quantified in the article. Winter water refill of soil profile, soil water storage, vertical scatter of soil profile moisture volume, temporal and spatial moisture regime changes and availability of soil water for plant cover was analysed within this quantification. The results of analysis and interpretation of moisture regime in different soil environments are necessary for water management of the country and for the design of adaptive measures for the periods of soil drought.

    KEY WORDS: monitoring, moisture regime, soil types, hydrolimits

    Address:
    - Milan Gomboš, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: gombos@uh.savba.sk)
    - Andrej Tall, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Branislav Kandra, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Dana Pavelková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 106 - 112, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0012
Scientific Paper, English

Anton Zvala, Peter Šurda, Justína Vitková: Moisture changes in the organic horizon of the forest soil under different tree species

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  • The course of soil moisture in the organic horizon of the forest soil depends mainly on the distribution of atmospheric precipitation and the air temperature during the year. The hydrological significance of the organic horizon of forest soil lies in the rainfall water retention and transfer of water to the lower (mineral) part of forest soil profile. Forest soil with a well developed organic horizon has a higher ability to retain soil moisture than the mineral component of forest soil. The effect of the forest type on the interception capacity is related to the leaf shape. The primary aim of this paper was to analyse and statistically evaluate the changes of soil moisture in the organic horizons under the different tree species (oak, sycamore maple and beech). The evaluation of soil water storage (SWS) in examined organic horizons during the selected dry and wet period was another aim of paper. The soil moisture was measured with frequency domain reflectometry sensors every 10 days in the period from 29.6.2018 to 15.1.2020. The mean value of soil moisture measured in organic horizon under the oak was 13.44%, under sycamore maple 16.08% and under the beech 19.64%. The SWS in the examined organic horizons was determined for the selected dry (29.6.2018–30.8.2018) and wet period (14.3.2019–31.5.2019). The statistically significant difference was found between SWS in the organic horizon under the beech and other two examined organic horizons only during wet period.

    KEY WORDS: moisture changes, organic horizon of forest soil, measurement of soil moisture, vegetation

    Address:
    - Anton Zvala, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: zvala@uh.savba.sk)
    - Peter Šurda, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Justína Vitková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 113 - 117, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0013
Scientific Paper, English

Noriza Khalid, Ákos Tarnawa, Zoltán Kende, Katalin M. Kassai, Márton Jolánkai: Viability of maize (Zea mays L) seeds influenced by water, temperature, and salinity stress

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  • The crops site provides a wide range of abiotic stresses to field crops. Successful protection against these impacts can be the use of adaptable cultivars. At the Crop Production Laboratory of the University of Hungarian Agricultural and Life Sciences, Gödöllő Hungary, maize Zea mays L genotypes of different geographic origin were exposed in an in vitro trial to various abiotic stress conditions (water supply representing poor and flooded state, temperature with suboptimal, optimal and high exposure, and saline and neutral environment). Samples of Hungarian and Malaysian hybrids were tested for viability, radicle and plumule growth under these conditions in four replications. The results obtained have proven that the various abiotic applications had altering effects on the germination performance of the seed samples studied.

    KEY WORDS: water stress, temperature stress, salinity stress, viability, maize genotypes

    Address:
    - Noriza Khalid, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
    - Ákos Tarnawa, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
    - Zoltán Kende, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
    - Katalin M. Kassai, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
    - Márton Jolánkai, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: jolankai.marton@szie.hu)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 118 - 124, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0014
Scientific Paper, English

Lucia Balejčíková, Andrej Tall, Branislav Kandra, Dana Pavelková: Nitrates transport comparison through two different soil profiles in the Eastern Slovakia Lowland lysimetric station

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  • Nitrates belong to the major nutrient required for plant growth and they are generally very well soluble in water often used as fertilizers in agriculture. The higher values of nitrates concentration will occur in the case of large amounts use of fertilizer in intensive agriculture, pipe damage or damaged drainage near wells. The fertilization reduction could be one of this problem solution for health protection, environmental and economic reasons. In our study, the spectrophotometric determination of nitrates concentration in 5 times over-fertilized soil in lysimeters localized in the Eastern Slovakia Lowland showed nitrates leaching in the 40 cm layer of sandy soil, while in the silty-loam soil profile nitrates were not detected. The main goal of the experimental work was to show different nitrates leaching through two types of soil profile differing in hydraulic soil properties. Low retention capacity and high hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil (locality Poľany) were favourable for nitrate leaching in comparison with higher retention and conductivity of silty-loam soil (locality Vysoká nad Uhom) under relatively low precipitation events in the studied period from April 29th to May 28th 2019.

    KEY WORDS: nitrates, spectrophotometry, lysimeter, precipitation

    Address:
    - Lucia Balejčíková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: balejcikova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Andrej Tall, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Branislav Kandra, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Dana Pavelková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 125 - 131, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0015
Scientific Paper, English

Viera Kováčová: Estimation of nitrate dispersion-diffusion coefficients in agricultural soil profile

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  • Nitrate nitrogen (N) is a water-soluble and mobile form of N that is highly susceptible to leaching. Nitrogen leaching requires water movement and N present in the soil solution. The quantitative expression for N leaching includes two factors, the volume of leachate and the N concentration. Controlling nitrogen leaching presents a major challenge for nitrogen managing. Nitrogen managing strategies regarding rate and time of N applications must be developed for the specific soils, hydrology, and crop-tillage systems of individual fields. The diffusion-dispersion coefficient accounts for the various transport-controlled processes which include dispersion (mixing) and diffusion transport of the ions in concert with the liquid movement in the pores of the soil. Experiments studying transport of nitrate ions were conducted by soil column leaching tests in four soil columns separately. The dispersion-diffusion coefficients Di were estimated.

    KEY WORDS: water quality, nitrate ions, transport parameters, dispersion-diffusion coefficients

    Address:
    - Viera Kováčová, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: kovacova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 132 - 138, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0016
Scientific Paper, English

Anežka Čelková, Anton Zvala: Influence of electrolyte concentration, sodium adsorption ratio and cation combinations on relative saturated hydraulic conductivity of saline soil

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  • Soil hydraulic conductivity (K) is an important parameter in the transport of water and salts in the soils. This study was performed to determine the influence of water quality parameters flowing through the soil on the relative saturated hydraulic conductivity (rKs) of salt affected soil. Its aim was to examine the effect of electrolyte concentration at different SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) values of Na–Ca and Na–Mg leaching solutions on changes in rKs of saline soil. The experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions in packed soil columns with saline soil from the Jatov locality, Slovakia. The leaching solutions at SAR values of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and at the concentrations of Na–Ca and Na– Mg binary electrolytes of 20, 40, 60, 100 and 120 mmol l-1 were used. The concentration and composition of the water flowing through the soil showed a significant influence on relative saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil used in the experiments. The results of the measurements indicated a decrease in rKs by gradually decreasing the electrolyte concentration and with increasing SAR values of the percolating electrolytes of both cationic pair Na–Ca and Na–Mg. The laboratory experiments also showed that the values of rKs of the soil measured with Na–Ca solutions were higher than those measured with Na–Mg solutions

    KEY WORDS: electrolyte concentration, sodium adsorption ratio, calcium, sodium and magnesium cation, relative saturated hydraulic conductivity, saline soil

    Address:
    - Anežka Čelková, Institute of Hydrology SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: celkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Anton Zvala, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 139 - 146, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0017
Scientific Paper, English

Lucia Balejčíková: Comparison of the solute (nitrates) transport through two types of soil profiles using 1-D HYDRUS software

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  • Nitrates, used especially in agricultural activities, are still a widespread risk for human health when exceeding recommended limits in various water drinking sources. Leaching of nitrates from soil to groundwater depends on various factors (as soil properties, the size of soil particles, the ability of specific soil components and plant to absorb water and nitrates, meteorological conditions). The main goal of the presented work was to show nitrates leaching through different soil types. Different solute transport processes and solute distribution in the soil profile were demonstrated using HYDRUS-1D model simulation. This mathematical computation research could contribute to the set-up of suitable fertilizers concentration applied in agriculture on the soil surface with defined hydraulic properties. This method represents the economically advantageous and simple first step before fertilizers application. Particularly, the main idea of such theoretical simulations is a timely environmental measures implementation against groundwater contamination.

    KEY WORDS: soil profile, hydraulic properties, solute transport, mathematical simulation

    Address:
    - Lucia Balejčíková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: balejcikova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 147 - 155, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0018
Scientific Paper, English

Zuzana Németová, Silvia Kohnová: Mathematical modeling of soil erosion processes using a physically-based and empirical models: Case study of Slovakia and central Poland

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  • The article is focused on mathematical modelling of the soil erosion processes on the selected areas within the Slovak Republic and Poland. The study includes the validation of the models used based on the actual measurements. The intensity of the soil erosion processes was calculated using the physically-based EROSION-3D model and the empirical USLE-SDR model. The simulations were done based on continuous rainfall events and a long-term simulation. The results modelled were confronted with the actual measurements in both areas investigated. Since a model’s validation and calibration as well as a relevant interpretation of the results obtained are the hardest and most challenging parts of any research, it is necessary to constantly enhance the techniques and methods of the calibration and validation of models, thereby deepening the knowledge of individual models. The results show the process has to be performed before the application of the models used together with the advantages and disadvantages of the physically-based and empirical models used, including a comparison and validation of the models applied.

    KEY WORDS: mathematical model, validation, calibration, erosion, extreme rainfall event, physically-based model

    Address:
    - Zuzana Németová, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: zuzana.nemetova@stuba.sk)
    - Silvia Kohnová, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2021, p. 156 - 163, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2021-0022.01.0019
Scientific Paper, English

Mária Šugareková, Martina Zeleňáková: Flood risk assessment and flood damage evaluation – The review of the case studies

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  • This article presents a brief overview of selected flood risk and flood damage assessment studies. The assessment on the Luvuvhu River focused on risk assessment based on hazard and vulnerability parameters. To these parameters was added another parameter, the exposure parameter in the assessment in the study of Sri Lanka. Hazard, vulnerability and exposure assessment were also performed on the Yangtze River in China, where the authors presented a proposal for a multi-index flood risk assessment concept. The output of these studies are flood risk maps for each indicator, as well as individual risk assessments in the given area. The next section is focused on the flood damage evaluation. The main tool for calculating flood damage in a study conducted in Beijing is flood risk. The calculation process focuses on the Integrated Flood Management (IFRM) method, which consists of risk identification, damage assessment and flood management to design flood protection measures. In flood management, the term vulnerability often occurs, which is a weakness or shortcoming that allows the hazard to be applied. Closely related to this concept is the sensitivity parameter, which can be used to estimate flood damage in the next case study in affected area in Netherland. The last of selected studies presents the application of the RESTful Application Program Interface (API) for the financial estimation of building damage. The API web service allows you to calculate flood damage to buildings without determining the flood risk.

    KEY WORDS: flood, flood risk assessment, flood damage calculation, vulnerability, damage

    Address:
    - Mária Šugareková, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: maria.sugarekova@tuke.sk)
    - Martina Zeleňáková, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic

     




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Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
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web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah
email: Yvetta.Veliskova@savba.sk

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh

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