Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 3 - 10, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Ladislav Markovič, Pavel Faško, Oliver Bochníček: Maximum 2- and 5- day precipitation totals in Slovakia in 1951–2010 period

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  • In the thesis, that is based on content of author’s master’s thesis (Markovič, 2017), we deal with study of the maximum 2 and 5-day atmospheric precipitation totals in Slovakia in the period 1951–2010 in terms of their spatial and temporal distribution Our goal was to create basis for dynamic-climatological analysis of those synoptic situations, which leads to occurrence of extreme multi-day rainfall situation. In Slovakia, have been already previously processed general studies that dealt with multi-day rainfall totals (Lapin., at al. 2004), however, due to the limited number of precipitation stations with processed maximum multi-day precipitation totals and time-consuming process of obtaining this data, only limited set of precipitation stations with authentic data was used in these studies. In our thesis was used newly created set of maximum 2 to 5-day precipitation totals from 486 precipitation stations owned and operated by Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMÚ), which were observing in the period 1951–2010 and their time series meets requirements of completeness and consistency.

    KEY WORDS: maximum in precipitation totals, multiday precipitation totals, 1951–2010 period

    Address:
    - Ladislav Markovič, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Bratislava, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 59415 492 Fax.: Email: ladislav.markovic@shmu.sk)
    - Pavel Faško, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Bratislava, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Oliver Bochníček, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Bratislava, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 11 - 16, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Vesna Zupanc, Maja Podgornik, Marina Pintar: Water balance of coastal region in Slovenia

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  • Within the scope of evaluation of water saving irrigation practices in olive orchards, a detailed water balance evaluation of west Slovenian coastal region has been prepared for years 2014 – 2016. The Slovenian Istria is facing increased risk of drought and heat stress. Due to more frequent occurrence and intensity of agricultural droughts, soil water regime management with irrigation is becoming an inevitable element of agricultural practice in Slovenian Istria.

    KEY WORDS: water balance, drought, irrigation

    Address:
    - Vesna Zupanc, Agronomy Department, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: vesna.zupanc@bf.uni-lj.si)
    - Maja Podgornik, Science and Research Centre Koper, Institute for Oliveculture, Garibaldijeva 1, 5000 Koper, Slovenia
    - Marina Pintar, Agronomy Department, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 17 - 26, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Pavla Pekárová, Marcel Garaj, Ján Pekár, Pavol Miklánek: Longterm development of hydrological balance in the Topľa basin in 1961–2015. Part I: Changes of water storage in monthly step in the Topľa basin

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  • The paper is focused on assessment of the changes in hydrological balance in the Topľa basin at station Hanušovce n. Topľou in 1961/62–2014/15. In the first part of the study, the hydrological balance in yearly and monthly steps is processed based on measured mean monthly discharge series of Topľa: Hanušovce n. Topľou and monthly precipitation depths series in the Topľa basin. The changes of water storage in the basin were compared in two periods. In the second part of the study published separately, the water balance model BILAN will be applied to assess the share of individual runoff components in monthly step in the Topľa basin.

    KEY WORDS: hydrological balance, Topľa River, basin water storage change

    Address:
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: pekarova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Marcel Garaj, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Pekár, Katedra aplikovanej matematiky a štatistiky, FMFI UK, Mlynská dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Pavol Miklánek, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 27 - 34, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Marcel Garaj, , Pavol Miklánek, Ján Pekár: Longterm development of hydrological balance in the Topľa basin in 1961–2015. Part II: Simulation of the runoff development by BILAN model in changed climate conditions

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  • The second part of the study deals with assessment of the changes in individual runoff components in monthly time step in the Topľa river basin to station Hanušovce nad Topľou. The runoff components were modeled by BILAN model. Model was calibrated and verified during the period 1961/62–2014/15. The calibrated model was used to simulate the runoff changes in the changed climate conditions – increased air temperature and decreased precipitation. Outputs of the model are the individual runoff components: direct runoff, interflow and ground water runoff.

    KEY WORDS: climate change, rainfall-runoff model BILAN, runoff simulation

    Address:
    - Marcel Garaj, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Pavla Pekárová, - Pavol Miklánek, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Pekár, Katedra aplikovanej matematiky a štatistiky, FMFI UK, Mlynská dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 35 - 41, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Liudmyla Gorbachova, Tetiana Zabolotnia, Borys Khrystyuk: Homogeneity and stationarity analysis of the snow-rain floods in the Danube basin within Ukraine

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  • The assessment of the homogeneity and stationarity of the observation series is an initial, but no less important stage of research. From its results depends our understanding of the processes and conditions of the formation of the rivers water flow in time and space. In this paper, we carried out of the assessment of the homogeneity and stationarity of the maximum discharges of the snow-rain floods of the Danube basin within Ukraine (34 gauging stations) during a long period (since the beginning of the observations to 2015). A hydro-genetic analysis was used for this. This methodological approach is using the mass curve, the residual mass curve and the combined graphs. The presented results illustrate that the observation series that have a full cycle of long-term cyclical fluctuations (decrease and increase phases) are homogeneous and stationary, while other observation series are quasi-homogeneous and quasi-stationary. The maximum discharges of the snow-rain floods in the Danube basin within Ukraine have the four types of the long-term fluctuations. Such types have the different duration of cycles.

    KEY WORDS: cyclical fluctuations, stationarity, homogeneity, snow-rain flood, hydro-genetic analysis

    Address:
    - Liudmyla Gorbachova, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute, 37 Nauki Prospect, 03028 Kyiv-28, Ukraine (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: gorbachova@uhmi.org.ua)
    - Tetiana Zabolotnia, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute, 37 Nauki Prospect, 03028 Kyiv-28, Ukraine
    - Borys Khrystyuk, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute, 37 Nauki Prospect, 03028 Kyiv-28, Ukraine

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 42 - 48, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Dana Halmová, Veronika Bačová Mitková, Pavla Pekárová, Danuta Limanowka: Trend of the meteorological characteristics and reaction of the daily discharge to snow melt in the small mountain basin

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  • The changes in precipitation and air temperature have been observed at majority of the meteorological stations all over the world during the last decades. Some of the meteorological stations with long observation series are influenced by urbanization and changing conditions of the air temperature monitoring. In the paper we analysed the air temperature and precipitation development on anthropogenic uninfluenced stations Podbanske (SK) and Kasprowy Wierch (PL) using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall trend test (MK) and Şen innovative trend method. At the end of the article we tried to confirm or reject the hypothesis about the increase of air temperature during the spring season in the mountain Bela River basin up to Podbanske station. We were analyzing the mean daily discharge series at gauging profile Bela–Podbanske for the period of 1928–2014. We were assuming that the supposed increase of the spring air temperature in the Bela River basin should be proven by earlier arrival of the snowmelt in the basin. The beginning of the flow response to melting snow we defined as the Julian day, when the discharge exceeds a certain threshold. Results of the comparison of both trend tests can be regarded as similar, documented that there is no significant change in this Julian day during the time period 1928–2014.

    KEY WORDS: statistical trends,, precipitation, air temperature, snow melting, uninfluenced mountain basins

    Address:
    - Dana Halmová, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: halmova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Pavla Pekárová, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Danuta Limanowka, Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, ul. Podleśna 61, 01-673 Warszawa, Poland

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 49 - 59, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Veronika Bačová Mitková, Dana Halmová: Testing the two-dimensional archimedean copula functions in coincidence of flood discharges of the main river and tributary

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  • The paper presents testing and selecting an appropriate copula function for two-dimensional analysis of synchronously occurring maximum discharges at the main stream and its tributary. Synchronous mean daily discharges on the main Slovak streams and their tributaries of the Danube river basin were analysed. The first part of the paper presents the preparation of the input data and correlation analysis of the data. The next part, presents the selection of marginal probability distribution functions and the selection of the appropriate copula function for calculation of the two-dimensional joint probability distribution functions of the synchronous discharges. Some Archimedean copula functions were used as a mathematical tool for determining the joint probability distribution. Tested Archimedes copula functions have achieved relatively equal calculated distribution probabilities. Probabilities calculated using the Gumbel-Hougaard copula function reached the smallest error of the estimation. This function has been selected as the most appropriate for illustrating the joint probability of occurrence of the synchronic variables.

    KEY WORDS: maximum daily discharge, correlation, copula function, statistical test, joint probability distribution functions

    Address:
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: mitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Dana Halmová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 60 - 68, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Patrik Sleziak, Ján Szolgay, Kamila Hlavčová, Juraj Parajka, Martin Kubáň: Impact of the spatial conceptualization of a hydrological model on the accuracy of flow simulations

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  • For the modeling a conceptual r-r model (the TUW model) was used. According to the spatial discretization for the given catchment, the TUW model can be compiled as a lumped or a semi-distributed, where the inputs are spatially differentiated. Both versions of the TUW model (i.e., the lumped and the semi-distributed) were used in this study. Both versions of the model were calibrated in two 10-year periods between 1991-2010. The model parameters were estimated by automatic calibration using a differential evolution algorithm. The methodological approach was applied for representative sample of 213 Austrian catchments as well as for one pilot catchment. In the first part of the study, the quality of the simulations of the mean daily flows (for 213 catchments) was assessed in terms of comparing of the NSE and VE values. We found that using the semi-distributed version of the model, we achieved better NSE results (higher values in both calibration and validation periods). In terms of VE, both versions of the model achieved comparable results (in the calibrations). In the validations, the semi-distributed version of the model proved to be more reliable. Subsequently, we selected one pilot catchment on which we demonstrated the impact of the spatial conceptualization of the model (i.e., the lumped and the semi-distributed version) on the accuracy of the mean monthly flows. We found that using the semi-distributed version of the model, the simulated values of flows were closer to real measurements.

    KEY WORDS: TUW model, spatial conceptualization of the model, Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, volume error

    Address:
    - Patrik Sleziak, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: patrik.sleziak@stuba.sk)
    - Ján Szolgay, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Kamila Hlavčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Juraj Parajka, Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resource Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/222, A-1040 Vienna, Austria
    - Martin Kubáň, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 69 - 77, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Marija Mihaela Labat, Viera Rattayová, Kamila Hlavčová: The impact of changes in land use on reductions in peak floods

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  • The aim of this paper is to compare changes in land use in the cadastre of the Vrbovce village during the period from the first military mapping (1764–1787) to 2017, and their effect on the generation of peak floods. Using the Curve Number method (CN method) for this comparison, a map from the first military mapping (1764–1787), a map from the second military mapping (1810–1869), and a current land use map (2017) were used. The current land use map (2017) was created using the local plan of the village of Vrbovce, an agricultural land map from the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), an orthophoto map, and a land use map (Corine, 2005). The research was performed in the basin of an unnamed creek on the southern side of the Teplica River, an unnamed creek on the northern side of the Teplica River, Lulovský Creek, and Haluzníkov Creek. The first land use design was proposed as a measure for reducing peak floods and compared to the current land use in the basins of these creeks. Contour strip cropping was proposed for arable land in the Haluzníkov Creek basin for reducing peak flood rates; the results were compared to the current land use map of this creek basin.

    KEY WORDS: land use, Curve Number method, peak flow, direct runoff

    Address:
    - Marija Mihaela Labat, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: Marija.labat@stuba.sk)
    - Viera Rattayová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Kamila Hlavčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 78 - 83, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Gabriel Földes, Silvia Kohnová, Romana Marková: Analysis of future changes in the characteristics of short-term rainfalls at the Myjava climatological station

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  • The work focuses on the analysis of the future changes in the intensity of short term rainfall at the Myjava climatological station in the northern region of Western Slovakia. Analysis of future changes of trends and scaling coefficients was detected on the intensities of short-term rainfall for the months of the warm period. Four regional climate scenarios were used for the period 2070–2100. To compare the changes the real measured rainfall depths for the period 1995–2009 were also evaluated. Trend testing was performed for durations 60, 120, 180, 240 and 1440 minutes by using Mann-Kendall trend test. Scaling coefficients of rainfall depths was determinate by using the simple scaling method and were compared with the values of the historical period. In trends significant trends were detected in most simulations. Detected significant trends have prevailing decreasing tendency. Analysis of scaling coefficients showed changes only in June and August, where the increasing design values of rainfall depths were determined.

    KEY WORDS: Short-term rainfall, Trend analysis, Scaling, Design values, RCM scenarios

    Address:
    - Gabriel Földes, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: gabriel.foldes@stuba.sk)
    - Silvia Kohnová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Romana Marková, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 84 - 92, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Radovan Nosko, Roman Výleta, Marcela Maliariková, Michaela Danáčová: Monitoring of the gully erosion technical measures efficiency through the use of modern technologies

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  • The paper presents the results of field measurements of the gully erosion. The treatments to be tested are small wooden check dams. The aim of this experiment is to estimate changes in erosion gully using a terrestrial laser scanner, UAV technology and GNSS. The measurements are taken in different time periods to monitor the dynamics of erosion processes. Of the total number of 7 wooden check dams, their slight clogging of eroded soil particles was identified in four cases and two profiles are deepened. The results show that there are no more significant changes in the position and the depth of erosion during the period 2014–2017, the lower part appears to be stabilized.

    KEY WORDS: gully erosion, wooden check dam, terrestrial laser scanning, UAV technology

    Address:
    - Radovan Nosko, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Roman Výleta, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Marcela Maliariková, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Michaela Danáčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: michaela.danacova@stuba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 93 - 100, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Zuzana Németová, Silvia Kohnová, Kamila Hlavčová: Assessment of erosion processes in the Svacenicky creek using physically-based erosion-3D model

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  • The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of different management practices on erosion processes in the small catchment Svacenicky creek. The modelling was done using physically-based erosion model, Erosion-3D model. This distributed and event-based model represent the useful tool for predicting the amount of soil loss on agricultural land. Small catchment situated in the Myjava Hill Land in the western part of Slovakia with dominant water erosion threat, was chosen. Considering the time of concentration, the calculations were done for 100-year design rainfall with duration of 240 minutes and for one real measured extreme rainfall event. In order to assess the variability and intensity of erosion processes and runoff generation, five scenarios of soil initial moisture were created for four different scenarios of management practices, i.e. silage corn, grain corn, sugar beet and winter wheat. The results demonstrate the effect of changing agricultural management practices on the generation of runoff and the amount of soil loss. Based on them, it is possible to determine the best protective option of chosen management practices.

    KEY WORDS: runoff generation, soil loss, design rainfall, physically-based model

    Address:
    - Zuzana Németová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: zuzana.nemetova@stuba.sk)
    - Silvia Kohnová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Kamila Hlavčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 101 - 108, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Ladislav Holko, Michal Danko, Jozef Hlavčo, Zdeněk Kostka: Overland flow measurement in a mountain headwater catchment using a portable rainfall simulator

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  • The article presents results of rianfall simulator experiments in the headwater catchment of the Sokolný jarok creek (The Western Tatra Mountains, Slovakia, catchment area 0,059 km2, mean elevation 1509 m a.s.l.). We have conducted 50 experiments with single rains of different intensity and repeated rains on the same plots. Despite the variability of the results, it can be concluded that overand flow in the study catchment was small (mosty up to 10%).

    KEY WORDS: rainfall simulator, runoff formation, mountain catchment

    Address:
    - Ladislav Holko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Ondrašovská 16, 031 05 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: holko@uh.savba.sk)
    - Michal Danko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Ondrašovská 16, 031 05 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Jozef Hlavčo, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Ondrašovská 16, 031 05 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Zdeněk Kostka, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Ondrašovská 16, 031 05 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 109 - 116, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Zinaw Dingetu Shenga, Dana Baroková, Andrej Šoltész: Numerical modelling of groundwater extraction system to control excessive water level

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  • The main objective of this paper was to design groundwater extraction system to control excessive rise in groundwater table. Its theoretical background is intended to be used for Nitra Industrial Park, which is already under construction at northern part of the town of Nitra. For proper construction and operation of the park, there are already proposed 38 groundwater network wells from which optimum pumping rate is required to be designed to keep the groundwater level at required elevation without causing any depletion to the resource. To address this challenge, we applied numerical groundwater modelling system using TRIWACO simulation package. The modelling package utilises finite element method (FEM) that can handle complex aquifer parameters for running quasi three-dimensional groundwater flow model. Based on available hydrological, geological and hydrogeological data numerous simulations were carried out for both - steady state and transient flow conditions. In order to implement the transient simulation system, a 1000-year instantaneous flood wave (Q1000) was considered. This research paper will present numerical modelling results on design of groundwater extraction system to maintain the groundwater level to required elevation as well as parameters and uncertainties for design purposes.

    KEY WORDS: Groundwater extraction, Piezometric head, Pumping rate, Transient simulation, TRIWACO

    Address:
    - Zinaw Dingetu Shenga, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Dana Baroková, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: dana.barokova@stuba.sk)
    - Andrej Šoltész, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 117 - 125, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Renáta Dulovičová, Yvetta Velísková, Radoslav Schűgerl: Hydraulic conductivity of bed silts in Komárňansky channel – Žitný ostrov

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  • This contribution deals with the evaluation of bed silts permeability in Komárňanský channel, the biggest channel from channel network at Žitný ostrov (ŽO). The bed silts permeability in ŽO channel network significantly impacts the mutual interaction between channel network and groundwater at ŽO and is expressed by parameter of their saturated hydraulic conductivity. The paper compares the values of saturated hydraulic conductivity of bed silts which were extracted from Komárňanský channel at ŽO during period 1993–2016. The bed silts were extracted and obtained by two ways, as disturbed samples and as undisturbed samples. From disturbed samples in Komárňanský channel were obtained saturated hydraulic conductivity values of bed silts calculated according to Bayer-Schweiger and Špaček – Tab. 1, the valid values Kp reach from 1,917.10-06 – 6,094.10-05 m.s-1. From undisturbed samples of silts which were extracted along Komárňanský channel from top, middle and bottom layer of silts, were determined values of saturated hydraulic conductivity Kn measured in laboratory - by falling head method. These values for Komárňanský channel in 2016 are illustrated in Tab. 2. The values Kn for Komárňanský channel reached values from 4,721.10-07 – 1,255.10-05 m.s-1.

    KEY WORDS: bed silts, silting, channel network, cross-section profile, longitudinal profile, particle size distribution curve, saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Address:
    - Renáta Dulovičová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: dulovicova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Radoslav Schűgerl, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 126 - 132, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Radoslav Schügerl, Yvetta Velísková: Using of ADV method for Measuring of flow velocity components in the stream

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  • In this article the results of velocity profile measurements in a stream by using the ADV method (Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) are presented. The measurements are carried out in the Malina stream (Záhorie). The velocity profile was measured with using the three-dimensional ultrasound probe of ADV device FlowTracker (SonTek/YSI). The obstacle was installed into the stream and by this way the velocity profile was modified. First, the undisturbed velocity profile was measured and subsequently there was measured the modification of this velocity profile caused by the obstacle installation. The FlowTracker device run in so-called „General mode operation“, in which all three velocity vectors in the measured point are recorded. The content of this article is evaluation of results from pilot application of the device for monitoring of point velocity components (vx, vy, vz) changes in field conditions.

    KEY WORDS: velocity profile, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry, stream, flow with free surface

    Address:
    - Radoslav Schügerl, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: schugerl@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 133 - 141, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Cyril Siman, Yvetta Velísková: Analysis of surface streams pollution sources in Slovakia – Part I. Point sources

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  • Water quality in the surface stream is influenced by several factors. Distribution of point and non-point sources of pollution in a river basin and amount of pollutants released from them to surface streams are the important information. An example of a point source of pollution is the discharge from wastewater treatment plants (industry, urban areas, farms, etc.). The most significant non-point source of pollution is considered the application of fertilizers in agriculture. The objective of this contribution – both parts – is to identify areas with the potential highest and lowest level of point and non-point pollution of surface streams in the period under review. The first part of contribution deals with analysing of point sources of surface streams pollution on Slovakia territory. The average amount of discharged pollution from significant point sources in the period 2010 – 2015 (6 years) is presented. Pollution is quantified and characterized by water quality indicators like biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids.

    KEY WORDS: significant source of pollution, non-point source of pollution, agriculture, utilization of, fertilizers, surface streams

    Address:
    - Cyril Siman, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: siman@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 142 - 149, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Viera Kováčová: Influence of soil type, organic matter and total Pb content on lead adsorption from the soil solution

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  • Movement and attenuation of heavy metals in soils is among other processes controlled by sorption onto the surfaces of soil particles. Processes like precipitation/coprecipitation, complexation and competitive effects of other cations may also influence the attenuation, but in all cases sorption will be involved, and at natural and slightly polluted concentration levels sorption may be the predominating attenuation process. The Pb sorption on ten investigated soils from Žitný ostrov area (Slovakia) has been studied in laboratory conditions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed with a very wide range of lead concentrations (0,01-500 mg/l Pb2+) at a constant soil/solution ratio. The aim was estimation adsorbed amount of lead S, determination of adsorption parameters for several soil types and comparison obtained results with results introduced in publishing works. Previous experiments showed, that sorption of lead is well-described by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm. Experimentally were determined parameters KF , n of Freundlich isotherm and parameters Qmax, KL of Langmuir isotherm. The influence of soil type, organic matter and total Pb content on adsorption were estimated. The results are introduced in this contribution.

    KEY WORDS: sorption, heavy metals, lead, soil solution

    Address:
    - Viera Kováčová, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: kovacova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 150 - 156, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Anežka Čelková: Simulation of chloride transport from irrigation water by infiltration into soil profile

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  • The presence or accumulation of excessive amounts of dissolved salts in the soil root zone and their negative impact on crops productivity is a general problem especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Dissolved substances in irrigation water in different ways affect the soil properties (physical, chemical, microbiological), the growth and development of plants. The degree of their influence depends on their concentration, on the method of irrigation, amount of irrigation water and on the irrigated land. Some of ions in irrigation water or in fertilizers in excessive quantities may be very toxic for plants. This applies especially to sodium, chloride and boron. The aim of this article was by means of numerical model HYDRUS 1D to analyse the one-dimensional transport and accumulation of chloride ions into characteristic alluvium quaternary sediment profiles of Danube Lowlands, by infiltration of highly mineralized irrigation water. A dry year from the meteorology and hydrology point of view was chosen for simulation. The concentration profiles of chloride ions in two soil profiles, and the courses of chloride concentration in root zone in the soil profiles after application of three doses of highly mineralized irrigation water were obtained. The maximum values of Cl- concentration in the root zone in both soil profiles reached relatively high values during the vegetation period (0.438 mg cm-3 or 0.615 mg cm-3 of Cl- ions), which are inappropriate conditions for growing crops more sensitive to chloride content.

    KEY WORDS: soil profile, transport of chloride, irrigation water, numerical simulations, HYDRUS 1D

    Address:
    - Anežka Čelková, Ústav hydrológie SAV,Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: celkova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 157 - 161, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Vesselin Koutev, Margarita Himmelbauer, Milen Venelinov, Yoanna Jekova: Application of drip irrigation and EC measurements for precision farming in vegetable farms – primary result

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  • Water and nitrogen are considered as the main limiting factors for growing vegetables in Bulgaria. Appropriate drip irrigation and fertigation are effective methods for enhancing water and nutrient use efficiency in vegetable farming that can reduce the risk of nutrient leaching. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) is acknowledged as an easily measured but reliable indicator for nutrient distribution in soil that influences crop productivity. The aim of presented study was to examine the applicability of EC measurement as a rapid indicator for optimization of fertigation parameters and crop positioning to the irrigation line. The investigations were conducted on alluvial sandy to loamy soils having coarse texture, low humus content and slightly acidic pH. One-year experiment with zucchini using drip irrigation and tree fertilizer treatments was carried out. Soil samples were taken to assess spatial distributions of EC the down profile. In addition, soil water content, salt content and EC were monitored using ProCheck Decagon devices. The results showed that the soluble salts (nitrate) distributions in the soil were readily evaluated by the EC measurements. During fertigation, dissolved salts moved laterally and vertically. Accordingly, the EC measurements also differed apparently up to 40 cm from irrigation line. As a result, the conducted experiments allowed corrections of the applied irrigation and the fertilizer rates, and the location of irrigation lines to the vegetable plants. Finally, the application modern measuring techniques in the field was essential to advance the irrigated vegetable farming.

    KEY WORDS: drip irrigation, soil electrical conductivity, vegetable farming

    Address:
    - Vesselin Koutev, University of Forestry, 10 Kl. Ohridski Bul., Sofia, Bulgaria (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: koutev@yahoo.com)
    - Margarita Himmelbauer, Institute of Hydraulics and Rural Water Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien, Austria
    - Milen Venelinov, University of Forestry, 10 Kl. Ohridski Bul., Sofia, Bulgaria
    - Yoanna Jekova, University of Forestry, 10 Kl. Ohridski Bul., Sofia, Bulgaria

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2018, p. 162 - 168, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Anton Zvala, Tomáš Orfánus, Viliam Nagy: Water retention in organic forest-floor soil horizons under spruce stand (Picea abies)

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  • Forest soils typically contain significant amount of organic material. Water retention of forest floor organic soil horizons depends on the degree of decomposition and thickness of the layer of organic material, which is unevenly loaded on the soil surface of forest land. It is not clear enough how superimposed organic horizons are significant in terms of their impact on hydrological processes on hillslopes or at the catchment scale. This article contains the results of measurement and evaluation of water retention of forest floor organic horizons in spruce forest in the Western Tatras. Results indicate that the decomposed organic material is able to retain 23% more rainwater compared to (organo)mineral horizons of the forest soil (Dystric Cambisol).

    KEY WORDS: forest floor, soil water retention, vacuum and pressure methods

    Address:
    - Anton Zvala, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: zvala@uh.savba.sk)
    - Tomáš Orfánus, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Viliam Nagy, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




AHS Editorial Office
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah
email: Yvetta.Veliskova@savba.sk

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh

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