Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 133 - 139, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Michaela Červeňanská, Adam Janík, Andrej Šoltész, Dana Baroková, Miroslav Gramblička, Michaela Červeňanská: Determination of input data for utilization of drainage channel systems on improvement of water regime in wetland systems

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  • This article presents an evaluation of infiltration experiments on Medzibodrožie region realized within the APVV project. The project deals with an assessment of the current state of the drainage channels in Slovakia and as well as with suggestions of measurements improving their functions for the future. The project takes place in several regions of the Slovak Republic at the same time. One of such localities is just mentioned Medzibodrožie region, specifically the region of West and East Leles channel, Northern Rad channel and Divý channel. Given data represent the base for utilization of water level and discharge regime of existing drainage channel system on improvement of water regime of the Tice River by artificial flooding. Tice – the old river branch of the Tisa River – represents a significant wetland system involved into NATURA 2000 protection regions.

    KEY WORDS: drainage channel system, infiltration experiment, Medzibodrožie

    Address:
    - Michaela Červeňanská, Katedra hydrotechniky, Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 59 274 563 Fax.: Email: michaela.cervenanska@stuba.sk)
    - Adam Janík, Katedra hydrotechniky, Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Andrej Šoltész, Katedra hydrotechniky, Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Dana Baroková, Katedra hydrotechniky, Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Miroslav Gramblička, Katedra hydrotechniky, Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Michaela Červeňanská

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 140 - 148, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Marek Sokáč, Yvetta Velísková: Determination of the hydrodynamic dispersion in river with presence of transient storage

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  • Paper describes the field tracer experiments - determination of the coefficient of longitudinal dispersion in river with expected occurrence of dead zones. Tracer experiments were carried out on 1415 m section of Malina channel. During the experiments was a food colouring agent successfully used as tracer. The evaluation of field measurements confirmed the presence of dead zones, i.e. river sections and regions with the appearance of small (zero or even negative) velocities that were formed due to the extensive presence of vegetation in the river. These areas capture part of the transported substance (tracer) and then gradually release the substance and incorporated back into the stream, creating a significant distortion of the tracer concentration time course. Strong influence of the dead zones raises the question of the adequacy using standard analytical solutions, whether for the purpose of determining the coefficient of longitudinal dispersion or for modelling the dispersion of pollution or other substances carried by the river.

    KEY WORDS: hydrodynamic dispersion, longitudinal dispersion coefficient, tracer field experiment, tracer, colouring agent

    Address:
    - Marek Sokáč, Stavebná fakulta STU Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: marek.sokac@stuba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 01 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 149 - 156, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Renáta Dulovičová, Yvetta Velísková, Radoslav Schűgerl: Hydraulic conductivity of silts in Chotárny channel at Žitný ostrov

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  • The purpose of this contribution is the evaluation of bed silts permeability which is expressed by parameter their saturated hydraulic conductivity. This activity was performed on Chotárny channel, one of three main channels of channel network at Žitný ostrov, considering to impact of bed silts permeability to mutual interaction between channel network with groundwater at ŽO. The paper compares the values of saturated hydraulic conductivity of bed silts which were extracted from Chotárny channel at ŽO during period 1993 – 2015. The bed silts were extracted and obtained by two ways, as disturbed samples and as undisturbed samples. From disturbed samples on Chotárny channel were obtained the saturated hydraulic conductivity values of bed silts calculated according to Beyer-Schweiger and Špaček (tab. 1) in 2004, the valid values K reach from 2,14.10-06 to 5,98.10-05 m⋅s-1. From undisturbed samples of silts which were extracted along Chotárny channel from top, middle and bottom layer of silt, were determined the values of saturated hydraulic conductivity K by measurement in laboratory - by the laboratory falling head method. These values for Chotárny channel in 2015 are in tab. 2. The values K for Chotárny channel reach from 8,542.10-08 to 2,704.10-04 m⋅s-1.

    KEY WORDS: bed silts, silting, channel network, cross-section profile, longitudinal profile, granularity curve, saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Address:
    - Renáta Dulovičová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 3229 3510 Fax.: Email: dulovicova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Radoslav Schűgerl, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 157 - 165, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Erika Hrdlicová: Water quality assessment of selected monitoring profiles of the Myjava River

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  • In the presented thesis, physical - chemical Indicators of water quality were evaluated at selected monitoring sites of the Myjava River under Government Regulation No. 269/2010 with an emphasis to exceeded indicators and assessment of Waste Water quality in the period 2003-2015. Two monitored sites were evaluated in the upper section of the River Myjava in 83,9-55,7 river kilometers.

    KEY WORDS: physical-chemical Indicators, monitoring profiles, Government Regulation No. 269/2010, assessment, surface water quality, Waste Water

    Address:
    - Erika Hrdlicová, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 59 415 256 Fax.: Email: erika.hrdlicova@shmu.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 166 - 174, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Danka Barloková, Ján Ilavský: Occurrence fluorides in waters and their removal from water

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  • The article deals with the occurrence of fluorides in water, their effect on the human body and methods of reducing their concentrations in water. The experimental part presents the results obtained using different sorption materials to remove fluorides from the water to meet the requirements of the Government Regulation No. 496/2010. Materials ion exchange resins A-MB20, Read-As (Cerium oxide), iron-based media GEH, Bayoxide E33, CFH18, activated alumina, natural and modified zeolite, Greensand, granular activated carbon were used. The results showed that the best material for the removal of fluoride from water was GEH, which is contrary to the literature, where the most often cited as the most suitable material for removal of fluoride from water activated alumina (aluminum oxid).

    KEY WORDS: occurrence of fluoride in water, properties of fluoride, water treatment, removal of fluoride, filtration and sorption materials

    Address:
    - Danka Barloková, Katedra zdravotného a environmentálneho inžinierstva, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Ilavský, Katedra zdravotného a environmentálneho inžinierstva, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 59274609 Fax.: Email: jan.ilavsky@stuba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 175 - 181, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Viera Kováčová: Effect of sorption on cadmium penetration risk to groundwater

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  • Mobility of heavy metal ions and penetration to groundwater is retarded mainly their sorption on soil sorption complex. The sorption in the loamy soil from locality Lehnice (two different soil depth L1 and L2) and in the sandy-loamy soil from locality Štvrtok na Ostrove (two different soil depth SL1 and SL2) has been studied in laboratory conditions. The results are introduced in this contribution. Batch adsorption experiments were performed with a very wide range of heavy metal concentrations (0,1-1000 mg⋅l-1 Cd2+) at a constant soil/solution ratio. Distribution coefficients K were calculated as ratio between equilibrium metal concentration in soil and equilibrium metal concentration in solution. The experimentally determined parameters of Freundlich isotherm K, n of loamy soil for soil depths L1, L2 were: KL1 = 43,32 l⋅kg-1, n = 1,291 KL2 = 24,32 l⋅kg-1, n = 1,45 and for sandy-loamy soil for soil depths SL1, SL2 were: KSL1 = 15,67 l⋅kg-1, n = 1,06 KSL2 = 8,56 l⋅kg-1, n = 1,16. Adsorption of heavy metal ions decreased with the soil profile depth.

    KEY WORDS: sorption, heavy metals, cadmium, soil profile, groundwater

    Address:
    - Viera Kováčová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 32 293 510 Fax.: Email: kovacova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 182 - 189, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Anežka Čelková: Individual and competitive adsorption of lead and cadmium on soil and its impact on their transport

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  • In this paper a set of single species adsorption and competitive adsorption measurements of ions of Pbľˇand Cdľˇare presented under equilibrium 9batch experiments0 and dznamic conditions 9columns experiments0. The adsorption of these ions in selected soil sample of chernoyem was evaluated bz the linear isotherm, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm in lineariyed form, and their transport was evaluated from breakthrough curves. The adsorption and transport parameters for Pbľˇand Cdľˇions were estimated. The obtained results indicate the preference of sorption of Pbľˇions in comparison to Cdľˇions during the adsorption processes in both non=competitive and in competitive conditions. This preference is valid in both in equilibrium and dznamic conditions. The sorption of both ions was higher and their movement through the soil profile was slower in the case of non=competitive conditions as compared in competitive conditions.

    KEY WORDS: lead, cadmium, adsorption, transport, isotherm, distribution coefficient

    Address:
    - Anežka Čelková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: + 421 2 32 293 516 Fax.: Email: celkova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 190 - 198, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Tomáš Vitvar, Martin Šanda, Jakub Jankovec, Anne Marx, Johannes Barth, Elena Hubert: Hydrochemical and isotopic tracing of runoff generation in the small mountainous catchment Uhlířská (Czech Republic), using the NETPATH approach

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  • A hydrological and hydrochemical-isotopic analysis was conducted in soil- surface- and groundwater compartments of the crystalline Uhlirska headwater catchment (1.78 km2) located in the Jizera Mountains in the northern Czech Republic. Three scenarios of the inverse geochemical modeling tool NETPATH were examined to trace the chemical evolution and separate the proportions of the soil and groundwater components. About 2/3 of the streamflow can be accounted to baseflow supplied by wetland Histosol peatwater with an admixture of more (about 10 m) or less (about 5 m) deep groundwater. About 1/3 of streamflow is accounted to direct components, originating in the hillslope Cambisols and in the direct rainfall. The results are inline with separation of runoff components using conventional hydrological approach and allow to determine the geoochemical origin of the components.

    KEY WORDS: runoff generation, hydrochemical modelling, mountainous catchment

    Address:
    - Tomáš Vitvar, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: tomas.vitvar@fsv.cvut.cz)
    - Martin Šanda, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
    - Jakub Jankovec, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
    - Anne Marx, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    - Johannes Barth, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    - Elena Hubert, Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Akademiestr. 56, 09596 Freiberg, Germany

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 199 - 206, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Michal Danko, Ladislav Holko, Pavel Krajčí, Jozef Hlavčo, Zdeněk Kostka: Measurement of snow depth in a mountain microcatchment using global positioning system

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  • The article presents analyses of applicability of global positioning system (GPS) in case of snow depth measurements in a remote areas. Twentyseven snow stakes were installed in a mountain microcatchment with area 5.59 hectars. Snow depth and snow water equivalent were measured at the snow stakes. The study evaluates accuracy of snow depth measured by the GPS. Vaules were compared with traditional measurements carried out on thesnow stick (resolution 1 cm). Influence of the density of measured points on statistics of snow depth and total volume of water accumulated in snow on a microcatchment scale is evaluated as well. Average difference between the GPS and traditional measurement of snow depth is 1.5 cm which is within the accuracy limits of the GPS measurements (2–4 cm). Suitably distributed sparser network of snow stakes can provide similar results of snow depth as the dense network of GPS points. This applies until the beginning of the snowmelt period. Influence of network density on calculated volume of water accumulated in snow is larger. The differences during the season varied between 14% and 19%, except time of maximum snow accumulation when it was just 4%. Difference in snow depth 5 cm represented the difference in snow water equivalent 18.3 mm which corresponds to 1020 m3 of water accumulated in the snow.

    KEY WORDS: snow depth, global positioning system, volume of water acumulated in snow

    Address:
    - Michal Danko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421445522522 Fax.: Email: danko@uh.savba.sk)
    - Ladislav Holko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Pavel Krajčí, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Jozef Hlavčo, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Zdeněk Kostka, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 207 - 214, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Veronika Bačová Mitková, Dana Halmová: The correlation analysis of the flow characteristics of the selected Slovak rivers

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  • The article presents analysis of the relationship of the maximum flow characteristics of the Slovak streams in the Danube River basin. The mean daily discharge and maximum annual discharges were used. The period approximately of 52 years was analysed (the end of the period was year 2011). The calculation is based on the analyses of simultaneous occurrence of two random variables. These variables – mean daily discharges – represent the magnitudes of the flood waves observed on the main stream and its tributary. For the purpose of calculations of the coincidence, the typical combination of the variables was defined, which could indicate major or minor statistical dependence of the flow wave. The selection of flow waves that were included in the analysis of basic statistical series was based on the method of POT (Peak Over Threshold). Based on the results of the correlation analysis of different combinations of variables, they could be used for frequency analysis of the flood waves on the river profiles of the main stream and its tributaries by bivariate approach.

    KEY WORDS: maximum flow, correlation, flood, flood disaster and protection

    Address:
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: mitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Dana Halmová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 215 - 223, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Pavla Pekárová, Dana Halmová, Veronika Bačová Mitková: Analysis of changes of maximum flood characteristics on the Danube River in Bratislava station

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  • This paper is focused on evaluation of annual maximum discharges and relevant flood waves. In this paper the gauge station Danube: Bratislava with the long series of observations (1876–2013) was selected. For further analysis, the given period was divided into two sub-periods lasting 1876–1945 and 1946–2013. We processed the flood waves of 5, 11, 15 and 21 days duration for each maximum annual discharge Qmax. We evaluated the trend in volumes of flood waves, lasting 5, 11, 15 and 21 days for the whole period 1876–2013. The results show no significant, neither increasing nor decreasing, trend in flood wave volumes. We analysed the hydrographs of the median (50th percentile) of the 138 Qmax waves with duration of 21 days in two different periods 1876–1945, and 1946–2013. Flood wave magnitudes (as well as rise- and fall- rate) are higher in the recent period in the case 10th (high flow pulses) and 50th percentiles (small floods), but volume of the waves is the same in both periods. In the case of the 99th percentiles (large floods), there are no changes.

    KEY WORDS: annual maximum discharge, flood wave duration and volume

    Address:
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: pekarova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Dana Halmová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta č. 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 224 - 234, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Romana Marková, Anxhela Xhaja, Silvia Kohnová: Trend and seasonality analysis of the maximum annual discharges in selected gauging stations at the Hron River basin

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  • Due to the increasing frequency and severity of flood events not only in Slovakia but also in the world, it is important to examine their behavior and regime in order to be able to properly and timely respond to risks that may result from these situations. In this paper we focused on seasonality and trend analysis by using directional statistics and modified Mann-Kendall test for maximum annual discharges in four gauging stations on the river Hron. The analysis of flood regime for Hron River was processed using the directional statistics (Burn, 1997) and the result is the determination of the mean date of flood situation (summer or winter) and the determination of flood variability measure. The result of directional statistics shows the strong seasonal occurrence of winter floods. The analysis of linear regression and break points shows decreasing trend and break points are located in years 1944, 1946 and 1974. When evaluating the series of maximum annual discharges we focused on trend analysis using the modified Mann-Kendall test for moving time window, which shows prevailing downward trend in all gauging stations.

    KEY WORDS: directional statistics, trend analyse, annual and seasonal floods

    Address:
    - Romana Marková, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, SvF. STU, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421915 135 067 Fax.: Email: romana.markova@stuba.sk)
    - Anxhela Xhaja, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, SvF. STU, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Silvia Kohnová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, SvF. STU, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 235 - 242, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Ladislav Markovič, Pavel Faško, Oliver Bochníček: Changes in long-term average monthly and annual reinfall totals in Slovakia

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  • Since the year 1931 there have been sets of monthly precipitation totals, that are comparable in their extent. Many of them have been involved in processing of standard climatological normals for periods 1931–1960 (HMÚ, 1966) and 1961–1990 (Mikulová, Faško, Šťastný, 2015). Monthly and annual long term average of rainfall totals for the period 1991–2015 as a part of forthcoming standard climatological normal 1991–2020, shows interesting changes, particularly in the individual months. Certain instability resulting from the length of the time series (30 years) and from greater natural spatial variability of rainfall can be found in long-term average of monthly rainfall totals. During recent calculations have been discovered some significant changes in comparison of periods 1991–2015 and 1961–1990.

    KEY WORDS: precipitation, standard normals, long-term average 1991–2015

    Address:
    - Ladislav Markovič, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Bratislava, Jeséniová 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421908 027778 Fax.: Email: markovic@fmph.uniba.sk)
    - Pavel Faško, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Bratislava, Jeséniová 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Oliver Bochníček, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Bratislava, Jeséniová 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 243 - 251, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Silvia Kohnová, Karolína Ochabová, Róbert Bohdal, Mária Bohdalová: To the applicability of radial basics functions for the interpolation of short term rainfall scaling exponents in Slovakia

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  • In practice, we are often faced with the problem of reliable estimation of design short term rainfall intensities on places without observations, respectivelz with insufficientlz long time series of observations, for engineering design. This problem can be solved for example using regionaliyation methods that allow the use of available spatial information and thus, out of direct observation to achieve reliable estimates of design values. In this studz, we propose an alternative method to estimate the design short=term rainfall intensities on places without direct observation. We applied an indirect estimation method based on scaling exponents which were interpolated using method based on radial basis functions. This approach has not zet been applied to such tasks. The aim of the present studz was therefore to test the suitabilitz of this method in condition of Slovakia. We selected í+ precipitation stations from all over Slovakia, were we derived scaling exponents of short=term rainfall for the warm period of the zear. The scaling exponents were then interpolated bz using the Hardz Multiquadratic Method throughout Slovakia. The results of interpolated estimates were compared with the statistical estimates at the stations, and showed great consistencz with them.

    KEY WORDS: interpolation methods, radial basis functions, rainfall intensities, scaling exponents

    Address:
    - Silvia Kohnová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: silvia.kohnova@stuba.sk)
    - Karolína Ochabová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Róbert Bohdal, Fakulta matematiky, fyziky a informatiky, Univerzity Komenského, Mlynská Dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Mária Bohdalová, Fakulta managementu, Univerzity Komenského, Odbojárov 10, 820 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 252 - 259, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Michaela Danáčová, Mária Ďurigová, Marcela Maliariková, Kamila Hlavčová: Experimental measurements of the surface runoff formation using a rainfall simulator in laboratory condition

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  • In this paper, we focused on experimental measurements of surface runoff formation from the different slopes, generated by simulated rain in laboratory conditions. On a soil sample we applied a 12-minute intermittent rain with constant intensity of 5 mm⋅min-1. As research factor of surface runoff formation we choose influence of the slope size, which was changed during experiment, and obtained results we have consequently analysed and compared. In addition to the amount of generated runoff we also measured the weight of eroded sediments and ratio of infiltrated water to the total surface runoff from simulated rainfall under varying initial conditions.

    KEY WORDS: rainfall simulator, laboratory-scale experiment, surface runoff

    Address:
    - Michaela Danáčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+ 421 2 59274 498 Fax.: Email: michaela.danacova@stuba.sk)
    - Mária Ďurigová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Marcela Maliariková, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Kamila Hlavčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 260 - 264, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Katalin M. Kassai, Ákos Tamawa, Horváth Ferenc Nyárai, Márton Jolánkai, Csaba Horváth: Water availability and protein formation interrelations

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  • Agronomic and environmental impacts were studied in a field experiment to determine water availability and protein formation interrelations. Five winter wheat varieties and six nitrogen application levels were applied in two crop years representing different precipitation and temperature patterns to evaluate yield, yield components and quality manifestation. The results obtained suggest, that precipitation patterns in relation with the wheat development phenophases had profound influence on the protein formation of wheat crop. Varietal differences were determined regarding yield, protein values in relation with plant nutrition and crop year impacts.

    KEY WORDS: precipitation, temperature, wheat, protein, crop year

    Address:
    - Katalin M. Kassai, Szent István University, Agricultural and Environmantal Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly utca 1, Hungary
    - Ákos Tamawa, Szent István University, Agricultural and Environmantal Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly utca 1, Hungary
    - Horváth Ferenc Nyárai, Szent István University, Agricultural and Environmantal Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly utca 1, Hungary
    - Márton Jolánkai, Szent István University, Agricultural and Environmantal Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly utca 1, Hungary (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: Jolankai.Marton@mkk.szie.hu)
    - Csaba Horváth, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department for Research Institutions, 1051 Budapest, Nádor utca 7, Hungary

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 265 - 278, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Hana Hlaváčiková, Ladislav Holko, Zdeněk Kostka, Michal Danko, Jozef Hlavčo: Spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture in the organic horizon of a mountain forest soil

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  • The article presents spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture of the upper organic soil horizon of a mountain forest soil. The measurements were carried out at two sites in the Jalovecký creek catchment, the Western Tatra Mts. in vegetation season 2013. Depth of the soil profile indicated by geophysical measurements (electrical resistivity and induced polarization tomography) is approximately up to 0.7–1 m. Volumetric soil moisture was measured by the Delta T Devices Wet-2 sensor device in the uppermost soil layer up to 7 cm soil depth. The largest values were measured at the end of May, the smallest ones during extremely dry summer period in August. Spatial soil moisture variability was higher than its temporal variability. At the site Červenec-forest the highest spatial variation of soil moisture was measured on the 31st of May in the range of 0.139–0.612 cm3⋅cm-3.The variability was smaller at the second site Pod Lyscom where the data series was shorter. It varied in the range of 0.073–0.343 cm3⋅cm-3 on the 24th of July. Increasing soil moisture lead also to increase of spatial variability on research plots expressed by standard deviation. Spatial correlation among individual points (mostly up to 4 meters) was detected only for the Červenec-forest site. Laboratory analyses indicate that maximum measured soil moisture of about 0.6 cm3⋅cm-3 is realistic and increase of spatial variability during wetter periods is caused by faster wetting and drying of the organic layer.

    KEY WORDS: upper organic soil horizon, soil retention, rainfall

    Address:
    - Hana Hlaváčiková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: hlavacikova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Ladislav Holko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Zdeněk Kostka, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Michal Danko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Jozef Hlavčo, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 279 - 286, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Hana Hlaváčiková, Katarína Brezianská, Viliam Novák: Influence of a biochar application on a sandy-loam soil water retention properties

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  • Improving the physical properties of soils is an important factor in increasing agricultural production. For this purpose a variety of organic materials are used, one of which is the biochar. The biochar increases soil porosity, absorbs water and nutrients, which is beneficial to the healthy plant development. On the market there are different types of biochar, whose properties are not yet fully known. In this work have been tested retention properties of biochar supplied by the company Sonnenerde (Austria) and also mixtures of biochar and sandy-loam soil, on disturbed samples in laboratory. The measurements confirmed the improved retention capacity of this kind of biochar but only in relatively small range of pressure heads from 0 to -100 cm. Retention of pure biochar was larger up to 27 vol.% compared with retention of a soil without biochar. In soil samples with portion of biochar corresponding to 80 t⋅ha-1 this difference was only 3 vol.%. In soil samples with portion of biochar up to 40 t⋅ha-1 no difference was observed compared to soil samples without applied biochar.

    KEY WORDS: biochar, retention curves, disturbed samples

    Address:
    - Hana Hlaváčiková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: hlavacikova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Katarína Brezianská, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Viliam Novák, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 287 - 292, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Justína Vitková, Peter Šurda: Impact of biochar application on moisture in teh top soil layer

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  • Biochar has been increasingly used in last years for improving the characteristics of soils. Although charcoal was used in agriculture for more than 100 years, there exist new forms of biochar, specially modified to perform specific functions in the soil. In our paper, we focused on the influence of biochar with specific characteristics on the water content dynamics in the surface horizon of a cultivated soil. Two plots were studied, one without any biochar application and the other one with application of 20 t⋅ha-1 biochar. The biochar was incorporated into the soil surface layer. Soil moisture was measured by the 5TM sensors from Decagon Dev. at the 5-10 cm depth. The measurements took place directly in the field without external interruptions. Two sensors had been installed in each plot to make a comparison between them possible and to reduce the measurement error. Measuring interval was 5 minutes to capture short-term precipitation events. The soil water content on the control plot was higher than that on the plot with biochar during dry periods, but the trend has reversed after ample rains, which can be explained by the effect of macropores between the grains of biochar and the mineral soil.

    KEY WORDS: biochar, soil moisture, field measurements, macropores

    Address:
    - Justína Vitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 3229 3519 Fax.: Email: vitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Peter Šurda, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 293 - 300, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Andrej Tall, Branislav Kandra, Dana Pavelková: Evaluation of soil drought according to monitoring and modeling in conditions of East Slovakian Lowland

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  • The aim of this contribution is to evaluate soil drought on locality Senné (part of East Slovakian Lowland) on the basis of monitoring and numerical modelling of soil moisture during 42 growing seasons (from 1974 to 2015). Soil drought was carried out according to soil´s hydrolimits. Analysis of meteorological elements and calculated values of PDSI shown that the driest growing season was in 2015 and August was the driest month. The results of numerical modelling confirmed the overall long-term trend of the drying of the soil profile in Senné. Monitoring and modelling shoved that even during extreme meteorological drought, the water storage in the soil profile in Senné almost never got below the wilting point level, but varied between the wilting point and threshold point levels.

    KEY WORDS: soil´s water storage, soil hydrolimits, meteorological drought, soil drought

    Address:
    - Andrej Tall, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Výskumná hydrologická základňa, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 56 6425 147 Fax.: Email: tall@uh.savba.sk)
    - Branislav Kandra, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Výskumná hydrologická základňa, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika
    - Dana Pavelková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Výskumná hydrologická základňa, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 301 - 306, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Milan Gomboš, Andrej Tall, Jarmila Trpčevská: Identification of the morphology of clay soil particles

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  • Presented paper deals with identification of morphological characteristics of clay soil particles. Clay particles of heavy soils of the East Slovakian Lowland were examined. Particles size, shape and specific surface were examined. Methods of sedimentation, laser diffraction analysis and visualization of particles on electron microscope were applied for research. Textural distribution of soil clay micro particles during sedimentation, temporal course of specific surface and display of micro particles shape were acquired. The smallest identified micro particle had diameter of 0.11 m. Specific surface was in rage of 2.29 to 33.20 m2⋅g-1 according to particle size. Soil clay particles are approximately of petal shape.

    KEY WORDS: clayey soil particles, laser diffraction analysis, morphology clay particles

    Address:
    - Milan Gomboš, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: gombos@uh.savba.sk)
    - Andrej Tall, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika
    - Jarmila Trpčevská, Technická univerzita v Košiciach, Hutnícka fakulta, Katedra neželezných kovov a spracovania odpadov, Letná 9, 042 00 Košice, , Slovenská republika Letná 9, 042 00 Košice

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 307 - 312, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Branislav Kandra, Dana Pavelková, Andrej Tall: Influence of water retention curves on the model outputs accuracy

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  • In the present contribution was quantified the impact of soil volume changes on the results of water storages modelling. Two approaches were compared. The previous approach disregarded the changes in the volume of soil samples in the process of drying and a subsequent determination of volumetric moistures. This resulted in inaccurate determination of the course of soil retention curves which was also reflected in the numerical simulations. The second approach took into consideration the change in volume and allowed more accurate calculation of the volumetric moistures of samples. Following, after obtaining more accurate courses of retention curves were by means of numerical simulations calculated water storages which correspond better with real conditions.

    KEY WORDS: water storage modelling, volumetric changes, water retention curve, East Slovakian Lowland

    Address:
    - Branislav Kandra, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+42156 6425 147 Fax.: Email: kandra@uh.savba.sk)
    - Dana Pavelková, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika
    - Andrej Tall, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2016, p. 313 - 321, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Marcela Maliariková, Radoval Nosko, Tamara Látková, Jana Skalová, Peter Minarič: The determination options provided for water retention curves for river basin of the Myjava River

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  • The aim of this paper is to develop pedotransfer functions (PTF) for the two soil horizons of the Myjava catchment area. Pedotransfer functions simplify the determination of soil water retention curves, which are essential inputs to the mathematical modeling of soil water dynamics and long-term characterization. Database available consists of 87 soil samples from Myjava region; 48 samples from soil horizon 20–25 cm and 39 from soil horizon 40–45 cm. The need to identify water retention curves by using PTF resulted from the need to determine physical characteristics of Myjava basin soils as a basis for a characteristic of soil water regime in this area.

    KEY WORDS: pedotransfer functions, water retention curves, soil horizon, Myjava River Basin

    Address:
    - Marcela Maliariková, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: marcela.maliarikova@stuba.sk)
    - Radoval Nosko, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Tamara Látková, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Jana Skalová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Peter Minarič, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




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Institute of Hydrology SAS
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Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah
email: Yvetta.Veliskova@savba.sk

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh

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