Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 87 - 94, doi:
Scientific Paper, Czech

Jana Pařílková, Jaroslav Veselý, Luboš Pařílek, Michael Novák: Monitoring of embankment dam and snow cover by the EIS method

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  • Changing weather conditions, droughts, alternating with torrential rain, are a phenomenon which is currently discussed worldwide. Although many parameters are monitored in the long term, interpretation and above all generalize the data is a demanding process that requires expertise from many disciplines. Currently, increase technology development and measuring technique has in that context the meaning also the method of data acquisition and traceability, it means metrology. Some of the properties of the environment are determined directly, others can be determined indirectly, through other variables. At the Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, through projects within the EUREKA program was implemented device for detecting anomalies caused by changing the water content in porous media using electrical impedance spectrometry. This paper presents some of the results from embankment dam and differences in snow cover monitoring.

    KEY WORDS: electrical impedance spectrometry, Z-meter, embankment dam, snow cover

    Address:
    - Jana Pařílková, Vysoké učení technické v Brně, Fakulta stavební, Ústav vodních staveb, Laboratoř vodohospodářského výzkumu, Veveří 95, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420 54114 7284 Fax.: +420 54114 7288 Email: parilkova.j@fce.vutbr.cz)
    - Jaroslav Veselý, Vysoké učení technické v Brně, Fakulta stavební, Ústav vodních staveb, Laboratoř vodohospodářského výzkumu, Veveří 95, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika
    - Luboš Pařílek, Vysoké učení technické v Brně, Fakulta stavební, Ústav vodních staveb, Laboratoř vodohospodářského výzkumu, Veveří 95, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika
    - Michael Novák, ENVICONS, s.r.o., Hradecká 569, 533 52 Pardubice – Polabiny, Česká Republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 95 - 101, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Emília Bednárová, Danka Grambličková, Eva Kolesárová: The influence of material pits in order to the safety of dikes of dry polder Borša

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  • One of the ways how to accumulate flood discharges is construction of polders. The Borša polder was built in 1963 -64 on East Slovakian lowland, in district of town Trebišov, exactly for this purpose which is accumulating the flood discharges from Borša creek and to protect this way the nearby villages from floods. Due to changing of hydrological conditions in recent years the polder has become insufficient. Therefore the reconstruction of the Borša polder was designed in 2007. One of the reconstruction objects was also polder’s circumferential dike. For this reconstruction was identificated material from material pits proposed from inside of existing polder. The aim of this article is to present the findings learned from the risk factors assessment that threats to the safety of polder dikes and the surrounding area in order to excavating materials from the proposed material pits. The solution was carried out by using the finite element method (FEM).

    KEY WORDS: flood, dyke, material pits, subsoil, uplift, filtration velocity, finite element method

    Address:
    - Emília Bednárová, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421259274675 Fax.: +421259274670 Email: emilia.bednarova@stuba.sk)
    - Danka Grambličková, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Eva Kolesárová, SVP, š.p., OZ Košice, Správa povodia Bodrogu, M.R.Štefánika 25, 075 34 Trebišov, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 102 - 108, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Valentín Sočuvka, Yvetta Velísková: Determination of reservoir capacity changes by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs)

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  • Hydrographic surveying of inland water areas has become more essential to evaluate reservoir capacity, rate of sedimentation, river degradation, water flow or water quality monitoring. Traditional techniques of observation are generally expensive and non effective. They also do not offer a comprehensive coverage, especially nowadays, when the requirements for environmental field studies become more and more demanding. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) represent the newest trend in hydrographic survey which makes the research of water environment more accessible to scientific study. This contribution represent one of the first results of using an AUV in Central Europe, to collect high-resolution spatial data and water quality parameters which have been obtained in 2014 at location of reservoir Veľké Kozmálovce.

    KEY WORDS: AUV, EcoMapper, bathymetry, water quality, water reservoir

    Address:
    - Valentín Sočuvka, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: socuvka@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 109 - 115, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Petr Dušek, Yvetta Velísková: Changes in groundwater level along a stream due to surface water level fluctuations

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  • Surface water fluctuations in streams can significantly affect the groundwater level regime in the surrounding aquifer. This effect is especially prominent in lowland areas without significant heterogeneity in the geological profile. The area of interest is located in the Rye Island, where a channel network was built to manage drainage and irrigation in the area, due to its very low slope. The regional geology consists mainly of gravel and sandy gravel fluvial sediments with high thickness, ranging from 350 to 400 meters. The selected channel Gabčíkovo – Topoľníky is one of the three main and most influential channels that affect the groundwater regime. The study was done using 1D surface water modelling with output data (surface water level, discharge) used in calibrated 3D numerical solution for simulating the groundwater regime in the MODFLOW environment (Harbaugh, et al., 2000).

    KEY WORDS: surface water, groundwater, interaction, numerical simulation

    Address:
    - Petr Dušek, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 49268259 Fax.: Email: dusek@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 116 - 124, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Dana Baroková, Andrej Šoltész, Katarína Možiešiková: Analysis and assessment of possible impact of Trnávka stream training on Groundwater level regime

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  • The contribution deals with analysis and evaluation of the potential impact of the Trnávka stream training on the groundwater level regime in the adjacent area of Vajslova Valley with emphasis on technical solutions of the Trnávka stream training in the Trnava town. Similarity of the surface and groundwater level regime of two neighbouring river basins the problem managed to solve. The source of the analysis and assessment was the long-term observation of the groundwater level in the borehole no. 42 – Hrnčiarovce in the Parná river basin (the state hydrological network groundwater observation borehole of the Slovak Hydro meteorological Institute, and the measurements of targeted monitoring of the Slovak water management enterprise in the eight observation wells of the groundwater level and the four water-gauge of surface water level.

    KEY WORDS: groundwater level regime, river training, Vajslova Valley in the Trnava

    Address:
    - Dana Baroková, Katedra hydrotechniky, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 2 592 74 693 Fax.: +421 2 592 74 693 Email: dana.barokova@stuba.sk)
    - Andrej Šoltész, Katedra hydrotechniky, Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Katarína Možiešiková, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 125 - 130, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

, Ján Pekár: The impact of the atmospheric oscillations on Hron and Ipeľ rivers discharge

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  • In our work we analyzed a new method, the time-dependent intrinsic correlation based on the empirical mode decomposition (TDIC), to try identify some nonlinear relationship between the selected atmospheric oscillations and the discharges of the Hron and Ipeľ rivers. For the calculation intrinsic mode function we used the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN method). Unlike the standard calculation of the correlation coefficient by using this method we can identify the dependence for non-linear and non-stationary signals. TDIC method helped us to capture the dependencies between selected rows or the duration, intensity correlation as well and its variability.

    KEY WORDS: monthly discharge, Time-dependent intrinsic correlation, Empirical mode decomposition

    Address:
    - Ondrej Marušiak, - Ján Pekár, Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Fakulta matematiky, fyziky a informatiky, Mlynská dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 131 - 137, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Pavla Pekárová, Pavol Miklánek, Ján Pekár, Dana Halmová, Veronika Bačová Mitková, Branislav Pramuk: Historical flood marks and long-term trends of annual maximum discharges of the Danube river

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  • The Danube River in the Slovak section – from the Devin Gate to Štúrovo – often changed riverbed, especially during the big floods. On the Slovak section of the Danube there is a significant change in the slope. The rate and extent of these changes can be identified by comparing historical maps and images from different years. The aim of this paper is to point out that constant natural erosion and natural sedimentation has a significant impact on runoff during floods. The long-term trends of the maximum annual discharges in gauging stations: Hofkirchen and Bratislava during the time period 1820–2013 were also statistically evaluated. Trend analysis shows that although the increase of the maximum annual discharges is not dramatic, there is a significant increase in levels during floods. The article is focused on finding the causes of this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to analyze the situation. The reason for this increase is rather the anthropogenic human activity than the air temperature growth. Flood protection is a never ending process. Due to permanent changes in the natural river flow – sedimentation, erosion of river beds – it is necessary to constantly expend financial resources for the training and revitalization of river channels.

    KEY WORDS: Danube River basin, historical floods, flood marks, long-term trends

    Address:
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 44259311 Fax.: Email: pekarova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavol Miklánek, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Pekár, Fakulta matematiky, fyziky a informatiky UK, Katedra aplikovanej matematiky a štatistiky, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Dana Halmová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Branislav Pramuk, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 138 - 145, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Miriam Fendeková, Dana Vrablíková, Marián Fendek, Ján Gavurník, Lotta Blaškovičová, Hana Kapolková: Inter-relation of meteorological and hydrological droughts in the upper and middle part of the Topla river basin

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  • Inter-relation was analyzed using precipitation data from the Bardejov station, discharge data from the Bardejov and Hanušovce nad Topľou stations and groundwater head data from eight observation wells for the period 1981 – 2012. Meteorological drought was estimated by characterisation of the year humidity and by SPI index, hydrological drought using the threshold level method (TLM) and method of sequent peak algorithm (SPA). Results showed that short-term droughts prevailed in the evaluated area. Longer drought periods occurred only in 1986 – 1987, 1994 and 2003 – 2004. More periods of long-term droughts were estimated in groundwater heads, lasting often for tens of weeks since summer till spring of the next year. No temporal regularity of groundwater drought propagation downstream the Topľa River was proved, however the results of cluster analysis showed some common features of more than 100 days-lasting dry periods formation for two groups of wells.

    KEY WORDS: drought, precipitation, discharge, groundwater head, Topľa River Basin

    Address:
    - Miriam Fendeková, Katedra hydrogeológie PriF UK v Bratislave, Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421-2-60296 593 Fax.: +421-2-60296 701 Email: fendekova@fns.uniba.sk)
    - Dana Vrablíková, Katedra hydrogeológie PriF UK v Bratislave, Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Marián Fendek, Katedra hydrogeológie PriF UK v Bratislave, Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Gavurník, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava
    - Lotta Blaškovičová, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Hana Kapolková, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 146 - 152, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Dana Vrablíková: Regime and drought occurrence in spring yields of eastern Slovakia

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  • Regime and drought occurrence in spring yields were analysed in the paper. Eleven springs of Eastern Slovakia and nine precipitation gauging stations were evaluated. Spring yields were analysed by basic statistical methods, namely by: basic statistical characterization, evaluation of trend, seasonality and long-term - periodicity as the time components of the yields regime. Mutual relations were assessed by Spearman´s rank correlation and cluster analysis. Additionally, drought analysis by sequent peak algorithm using HydroOffice 12 program was applied. Some similarities were found by evaluation of drought in spring yields. Occurrence of winter – spring as well as summer – autumn droughts in all springs is very common. Drought occurred almost in all springs in hydrological years: 1986, 1987, 1991, 1993, 2003 and 2007. The most extreme drought was evaluated in yields of the spring in Družstevna pri Hornáde lasting from July 1983 to July 1984 (392 days). Drought occurrence in spring yields was strongly influenced by meteorological drought.

    KEY WORDS: springs, yield, drought, SPA, eastern Slovakia

    Address:
    - Dana Vrablíková, Katedra hydrogeológie PRIF UK, Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 84215 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: vrablikova@fns.uniba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 153 - 158, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Helena Hlavatá, Martina Tomková: Analyzes the development of air temperature at the station Michalovce in the winter season during the years 1961-2014

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  • Winter is often judged on the basis of astronomical criteria. Classification as winter takes in our country from the winter solstice to the spring equinox. On the basis of climatic and meteorological criteria, however, such time limit does not correspond to climatic conditions that prevail throughout the winter. Therefore, in meteorology and climatology is regarded as the beginning of winter 12/01 and as the end 28/02. The lowest average monthly air temperature in Michalovce is predominantly in January, but the individual winters may be the coldest February or December, rarely March or November. The coldest winter was 1963/1964 and the warmest was 2013/2014. Winter like the seasons significantly affect the average annual air temperature (one of the most important indicators of climate). For the temperature classification of winters are used several methodologies, for example, evaluation of winters by the average temperature amounts with negative daily temperatures, or determination of the winter season on entering the characteristic days (average daily temperature below 0 °C) and the like. The aim of this contribution is to assess the winter, according to several methods and practices and to compare them with each other.

    KEY WORDS: air temperature, winter season, the East Slovak Lowland, negative temperature sum

    Address:
    - Helena Hlavatá, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Košice, Ďumbierska 26, 041 17 Košice, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 55 7961 741 Fax.: Email: helena.hlavata@shmu.sk)
    - Martina Tomková, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Košice, Ďumbierska 26, 041 17 Košice, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 159 - 170, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Jozef Hlavčo, Michal Danko, Zdeněk Kostka: The comparison of atmospheric precipitation logged by different type of gauges

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  • The comparison of atmospheric precipitation logged in time by gauges OTT Pluvio2, OTT Parsivel2, MPS system TRwS504 and EMS Brno Minikin Eri is presented in this paper. The simultaneous measurement of precipitation by two types of weighted gauges (OTT Pluvio2, MPS system TRwS504), by optical laser disdrometer OTT Parsivel2 and by standard gauges Metra type was conducted on the experimental area in Liptovska Ondrasova from August 2014 to July 2015. The comparison was supplemented by data from summer period from weighted gauge MPS system TRwS504 and from tipping gauge EMS Brno Minikin Eri, which were situated on the experimental area on Cervenec in Western Tatra Mountains. The objective of comparison was to analyze the differences of measurement by various types of gauges with detailed evaluation of period with solid and liquid precipitation and one extreme precipitation event. Data of disdrometer OTT Parsivel2 are presented too. Disdrometer logged data regarding the state of matter of precipitation and intensity of precipitation event in 1-minute time step.

    KEY WORDS: weighted gauge, tipping gauge, disdrometer, comparison

    Address:
    - Jozef Hlavčo, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421445522522 Fax.: Email: hlavco@uh.savba.sk)
    - Michal Danko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Zdeněk Kostka, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 171 - 177, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Justína Vitková, Katarína Brezianská, Jana Skalová: Analyse of actual evapotranspiration at Zahorie lowland in time horizons 2010, 2030 and 2075

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  • The article deals with the possible impact of climate change on actual evapotranspiration at Zahorie Lowland. Meteorological characteristics were simulated using a global climate model CGCM 3.1 and its pessimistic scenario SRES A2 and SRES B1 as an optimistic scenario. As a reference period were selected years 1961-1990, which were under evaluation compared with 30 years horizon in 2010, 2030 and 2075. Actual evapotranspiration was simulated using a mathematical model GLOBAL with a grass vegetation. The results showed an increase of actual evapotranspiration at the site in comparison with the reference period. This increase is based on the possible increase the air temperature and the precipitation total. Based on the results, the ongoing climate change causes not a dramatic change in Zahorie Lowland area.

    KEY WORDS: climate change, actual evapotranspiration, mathematical modeling

    Address:
    - Justína Vitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: vitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Katarína Brezianská, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Jana Skalová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, SvF, STU, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 178 - 186, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Miroslava Jarabicová, Peter Minarič, Mária Pásztorová: The course of soil water regime in the Poiplie area as a consequence of climate change

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  • Climate change is the big problem, whitch have to be solved. Climate changes do not only represent changes in the weather, climate, but also changes in the ecosystem. The average air temperature on Earth rises, the number and strength of hurricanes, tropical storms and cyclones is growing, flood periods are more frequent, the climatic zones borders are moving also a decrease in the amount of the snow cover can be observed. Furthermore an extreme melting of glaciers and extended periods of heat and drought occur all over the planet. Therefore this paper’s aim is prognosis the soil water regime until the year 2100 for the Poiplie region due to the climate change. This region is particularly significant because of rare plant and animal species occurrence, which are bound to the open water bodies, wet meadows and floodplain forests. During the climate change prognosis we’ve worked with the climate models KNMI, MPI and emission scenarios A2 (pessimistic) and SRES B1 (optimistic). These data were then used to prognosis the soil water regime using the mathematical model GLOBAL.

    KEY WORDS: soil water regime, prognosis, model GLOBAL, climate models

    Address:
    - Miroslava Jarabicová, Stavebná fakulta - Slovenská technická univerzita, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: miroslava.jarabicova@stuba.sk)
    - Peter Minarič, Stavebná fakulta - Slovenská technická univerzita, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Mária Pásztorová, Výskumný ústav vodného hospodárstva, Nábrežie arm. gen. L. Svobodu 5, 812 49 Bratislava 1, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 187 - 192, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

František Doležal, Svatopluk Matula, Markéta Miháliková, Jaroslav Fišák, Ayele Teressa Chala, Markéta Hrkalová: Soil water fluxes measured with a small lysimeter

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  • A weighable Smart Field Lysimeter (30 cm diameter, 30 cm depth) with adaptively regulated bottom suction was used to measure soil water fluxes at the surface and at the 30 cm depth under a short grass stand. The primary data at 1-minute intervals require digital filtering to remove the noise. Various methods of filtering were tested and two were found satisfactory. Smoothing of the data and distinction between fluxes of different directions made it possible to separately estimate actual evapotranspiration, precipitation and condensation, and percolation at 30 cm. Both the precipitation and the actual evapotranspiration derived from the lysimeter alone are in absolute values higher than those obtained with a tipping bucket rain gauge. The diurnal pattern of actual evapotranspiration measured by the lysimeter has a maximum occurring, on average, shortly after the noon. The percolation curves after rain events make it possible to estimate the unsaturated soil’s hydraulic conductivity and field capacity and to demonstrate the effect of preferential flow.

    KEY WORDS: precipitation, evapotranspiration, percolation, hydraulic conductivity, field capacity

    Address:
    - František Doležal, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources - Department of Water Resources, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: dolezalf@af.czu.cz)
    - Svatopluk Matula, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources - Department of Water Resources, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
    - Markéta Miháliková, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources - Department of Water Resources, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
    - Jaroslav Fišák, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources - Department of Water Resources, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
    - Ayele Teressa Chala, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources - Department of Water Resources, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
    - Markéta Hrkalová, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources - Department of Water Resources, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 193 - 198, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Jana Domanová, Dušan Igaz, Tomáš Borza, Ján Horák: The retention characteristics of soil after application of biochar

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  • The plants can accept only one part of water in soil. The total amount of plant available water is determined as the amount of water held between field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (PWP). Water retention curves are one from a key hydrophysical characteristic of a soil, which are used by the mathematical modeling of soil water storage. The main objective of this study was to study the effect of biochar on the soil hydrophysical properties (plant available water, pf curves, soil porosity).The field study was conducted at the experimental site in Nitra region Slovakia (lat. 48°19´00´´, lon. 18°09´00´´). The soil type is classified as Orthic Luvisol (FAO, 1998). Biochar was applied in to the soil in III. 2014 in rates 10 and 20 tha-1 and also enrichted biochar in rates 10 and 20 tha-1. Application of enrichted biochar in rates 20 tha-1 increased (P< 0,05) soil water content from 42,5 %vol. to 43,4 %vol. The others treatments didn’t show any effect on soil water content. The porosity of soil was increased by 20 tha-1 of enrichted biochar by 5 %vol. Plant available water was increased by 10 tha-1 of biochar by 1,5 %vol. The enrichted biochar increased plant available water by 1 %vol.

    KEY WORDS: biochar, retention curve, soil moisture, field capacity, wilting point

    Address:
    - Jana Domanová, Katedra biometeorológie a hydrológie FZKI SPU, Hospodárska 7, 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: domanova.jana@gmail.com)
    - Dušan Igaz, Katedra biometeorológie a hydrológie FZKI SPU, Hospodárska 7, 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Tomáš Borza, Katedra biometeorológie a hydrológie FZKI SPU, Hospodárska 7, 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Horák, Katedra biometeorológie a hydrológie FZKI SPU, Hospodárska 7, 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 199 - 203, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Dana Pavelková, Milan Gomboš: Assessment of available water supply in soil with regard to water availability for plants

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  • To assess an available water supply in soil for the vegetation cover, the characteristic points of soil retention curve (soil water content) are chosen by convention, namely Field water capacity (FWC), Tresholt point (TP) and Wilting point (WP). Water content in unsaturated zone of soil between the points FWC and WP represents an existential interval of water content for the plant cover in a unit area because within this interval is water available in unsaturated zone of soil. If a course of water supply in soil drops below the point corresponding to TP, it causes a soil drought. Identification of such state of supplies by its temporal and spatial manifestation is a fundamental basis for adaptation. Presented article describes a professional estimation of water supplies corresponding to TP. Water supplies are calculated for the Slovak part of Medzibodrožie area to a depth of 1 metre. Potential water supplies at TP level are compared with the average water supplies in 1997-2005 and estimated water supplies according to scenario CCCM 2000 for the reference years 2030 and 2075.

    KEY WORDS: soil drought, hydrolimits, threshold point

    Address:
    - Dana Pavelková, Výskumná hydrologická základňa ÚH SAV, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: pavelkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Milan Gomboš, Výskumná hydrologická základňa ÚH SAV, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 204 - 210, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Branislav Kandra, Dana Pavelková, Andrej Tall: Determination of the soil retention curves with regard to the soil volume changes

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  • The area of Eastern Slovakian Lowland is characteristic of incidence of heavy soils. The heavy soils are marked with the high content of clay minerals. Clay particles cause volume changes in soils when soil moisture content is changing. The process of saturation lead to soil swelling, on the other hand, a drying of soil causes its shrinkage. In natural conditions, the drought seasons cause the formation of crack network. The result is a typical two-domain soil structure which is formed by cracks and soil matrix. Soil crack network represents a significant part of retention capacity of the soil. It allows very fast gravitational flow of rainwater up to the groundwater. Cracks also allow a rapid evaporation of water even from the deeper layers of soil back into the atmosphere. In the vertical direction, the volume changes are manifested by a vertical movement of soil surface. When measuring some basic hydrophysical soil properties, it is necessary to take into account above-mentioned volume changes. A fundamental characteristic of soil retention properties is the soil retention curve. It expresses a relation between the soil water potential and soil moisture content. When measuring water retention of the drainage branch of soil retention curve, it lead to gradual drainage of samples depending on the exerted pressure. In heavy soils, drainage is associated with shrinkage of the soil column. The impact of shrinkage on the course of the retention curve is often neglected. Presented article quantifies the impact of volume changes in heavy soils on the course of water retention curve.

    KEY WORDS: volumetric changes, clay minerals, heavy soils, soil moisture

    Address:
    - Branislav Kandra, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+42156 6425 147 Fax.: +42156 6425 147 Email: kandra@uh.savba.sk)
    - Dana Pavelková, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika
    - Andrej Tall, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 211 - 218, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Štefan Rehák, Ľubica Kopčová: Irrigation use possibilities with regard to water resources in hydrological basins

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  • According to climate scenarios and outputs of models of general circulation of atmosphere there is expected extraordinary increase of high precipitation totals as well as increase of number of days without precipitation. These facts will impacts the stability of agricultural production, especially in lowland areas. The area of land with water deficit increased and the moisture demand of crops also increased. However, the disposable resources of irrigation water decrease. This will limit the use and development of irrigation. The areas with water deficit were determined according to the ratio of actual and potential evapotranspiration ETa/ET0. The irrigation demand of crops was calculated with the help of model Daisy. Disposable resources of irrigation water were evaluated with the help of hydrological balance according to scenarios CCCM for time horizons 2010, 2030 a 2075.

    KEY WORDS: actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, irrigation water resources, moisture demand of crops, water deficit, disposable water resources in hydrological river basin

    Address:
    - Štefan Rehák, Výskumný ústav vodného hospodárstva, Nábrežie arm. gen. L. Svobodu 5, 812 49 Bratislava 1, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:0903 997 907 Fax.: Email: rehak@vuvh.sk)
    - Ľubica Kopčová, Výskumný ústav vodného hospodárstva, Nábrežie arm. gen. L. Svobodu 5, 812 49 Bratislava 1, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2015, p. 219 - 224, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Márton Jolánkai, Zsolt Szentpétery, Akos Tamawa, Katalin M. Kassai: Evaluation of climate change impact by biological indicator

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  • Spread of western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera has been recorded since 1992 in Central Europe due to an anthropogenic failure. The pest has been imported from overseas during the Yugoslav war with a humanitarian aid transport to Europe. This insect has conquered gradually the whole territory of the Carpathian basin in recent years. The gradation of Diabrotica in Hungary has been completed between 1996 and 2002. The present study summarizes results of an observation of the Crop Production Institute regarding the influences of climatic factors on the spread of the pest. The research results suggest that the amount of precipitation and temperature data had an indirect effect on the spread of the insect. Significant correlations were found in the case of annual harvested maize yields as well as the amount of precipitation of June month with the magnitude of gradation. Further entomological studies are needed to clear the background of the results obtained.

    KEY WORDS: climatic impacts, maize, yield, western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera)

    Address:
    - Márton Jolánkai, Szent István University, 2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly utca 1. Hungary (Corresponding author. Tel.:003628522067 Fax.: 003628510804 Email: kassai.katalin@mkk.szie.hu)
    - Zsolt Szentpétery, Szent István University, 2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly utca 1. Hungary
    - Akos Tamawa, Szent István University, 2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly utca 1. Hungary
    - Katalin M. Kassai, Szent István University, 2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly utca 1. Hungary

     




AHS Editorial Office
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
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Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah
email: Yvetta.Veliskova@savba.sk

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh

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