Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 171 - 178, doi:
Scientific Paper, Czech

Jaroslav Rožnovský, Filip Chuchma, Rostislav Fiala, Jaroslav Rožnovský: The basic water balance, a pointer to a drought on the territory of the Czech

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  • The Brno branch office of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute uses the AVISO model to calculate basic water balance in weekly steps for grassland, expressed by the difference between precipitation amount and potential evapotranspiration. The calculation uses daily values of sunshine duration, air temperature and humidity and wind speed. The basic assumption of extraordinary drought is low precipitation amount and longer periods without rain. Occurrence of exceptional drought is due to low rainfall amount as well as longer periods without rain, but also due to higher air temperatures. Analysis of selected years with exceptional drought shows that water balance deficits manifest themselves differently in each year. In the summer, the deficit can reach even less than negative 300 mm. By the end of vegetation period, the deficit can be more than 200 mm. The ever-increasing incidence of drought requires attention and search for ways of increasing the retention capacity of the landscape.

    KEY WORDS: climate, soil, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration

    Address:
    - Jaroslav Rožnovský, Český hydrometeorologický ústav, pobočka Brno, Kroftova 43, 616 67 Brno, Česká republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: roznovsky@chmi.cz)
    - Filip Chuchma, Český hydrometeorologický ústav, pobočka Brno, Kroftova 43, 616 67 Brno, Česká republika
    - Rostislav Fiala, Český hydrometeorologický ústav, pobočka Brno, Kroftova 43, 616 67 Brno, Česká republika
    - Jaroslav Rožnovský, Mendelova univerzita vBrně, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno, Česká republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 179 - 184, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Justína Vitková, Andrej Tall: Changes in soil temperature regime and soil water regime at Danubian Lowland and East Slovak Lowland during 2017

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  • This papaer analyses a soil temperature regime and a soil water regime at two localities in biggest slovakian lowlands. Data for our analyse was from automatic measuring stations. First area is located at Danubian Lowland (Vrakúň), second is located at East Slovak Lowland (Boľ). The year 2017 was third year in rank, which is one of the warmest years in history of measurements in Slovakia. This phenomenon also affects soil temperature and soil water content, which causes problems especially for farmers. We found that soil water content was higher in deeper horizons of the East Slovak Lowland and soil temperature was higher in top horizon of the Danubian Lowland, especially in summer months. The monitoring of soil temperature regime and soil water regime can help farmer wih applicable soil management.

    KEY WORDS: soil temperature regime, soil water regime, monitoring, climate change

    Address:
    - Justína Vitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 32293519 Fax.: Email: vitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Andrej Tall, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, J. Hollého 4, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 185 - 192, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Ladislav Kováč, Dana Kotorová, Jana Jakubová: Granulometric composition and hydrolimits of soil textures for non-regularly overflowing area

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  • Project “Analyse of soil properties and landscape development of non-regularly overflowed areas“ was researched for the dry polder Beša locality. This project builds on the previous one and focuses on the quantification of granulometric composition and soil hydrolimits changes in the polder Beša after flooding in 2010. In four soil profiles in depths 0.0 – 0.6 m in each 0.2 m were determined parameters as follows: particle-size composition, bulk density, total porosity, maximum capillary water capacity, available water capacity, point of decreased availability. The content of clay particles in range 23.89 – 78.05 % characterized soils in polder Beša as sandy-loamy soil up-to clay soil. Ground survey, made in years 2012 and 2015, confirmed large spatial soil heterogeneity from 2009 year. In year 2015, in compare with year 2012, decreasing of bulk density and increasing of porosity were determined. Values of maximum capillary water capacity, available water capacity and point of decreased availability reached levels of typical values for model soil textures.

    KEY WORDS: non-regularly overflowing area, soil texture, hydrolimits

    Address:
    - Ladislav Kováč, NPPC – Výskumný ústav agroekológie, Špitálska 1273, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika
    - Dana Kotorová, NPPC – Výskumný ústav agroekológie, Špitálska 1273, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: dana.kotorova@nppc.sk)
    - Jana Jakubová, NPPC – Výskumný ústav agroekológie, Špitálska 1273, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 193 - 202, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Dana Pavelková, Branislav Kandra, Milan Gomboš, Jana Pařílková: Analyses the effect of soil texture on van Genuchten parameters

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  • Water retention curve is an important hydrophysical characteristic of soils. It represents a dependence between the moisture potential of the soil and its humidity. In mathematical models it is an important and indispensable input parameter characterizing the given soil. Determining its course is a time-consuming and costly process. For this reason, it is the object of research to find procedures for determining retention curve parameters based on easily measurable soil characteristics. The paper examines the hypothesis on the possibility of determining the parameters of the analytical expression of the retention curve according to van Genuchten. The influence of the texture was demonstrated for the parameter "n" and for the retention characteristics of Theta R and Theta S. For the alpha parameter, the statistically significant effect of the texture on its value was not identified. The results of the analysis showed that the retention characteristics of water retention curve, Theta R and Theta S are most affected by the content of the clay fraction. Parameter "n" is mainly affected by silt and sand fraction. We have demonstrated the possibility of expert estimation of three van Genuchten parameters based on the texture of the soil.

    KEY WORDS: texture of the soil, Van Genuchten parameters, theta R, theta S, alpha, n, water retention curves, positive correlation dependence, negative correlation dependence

    Address:
    - Dana Pavelková, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, Michalovce 071 01, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+42156 6425147 Fax.: Email: pavelkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Branislav Kandra, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, Michalovce 071 01, Slovenská republika
    - Milan Gomboš, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, Michalovce 071 01, Slovenská republika
    - Jana Pařílková, Vysoké učení technické v Brně, Fakulta stavební, Ústav vodníchstaveb, Laboratoř vodohospodářskéhovýzkumu, Veveří 95, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 203 - 209, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Branislav Kandra, Milan Gomobš: The impact of different crop management on the soil water storage and evapotranspiration: simulation in GLOBAL model

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  • The influence of selected crop species on the water content of the soil was assessed by analyzing the daily values of soil water storage, actual evapotranspiration and its partial processes, the actual transpiration and evaporation in the production and non-production part of the vegetation season 2006. The results of numerical simulations show that the average water consumption in the surveyed crops varied ranging from 7.9 to 22.1 % of available water capacity (188.85 mm). Actual transpiration totals were associated with the amount of yields of individual crops. The proportion of transpiration on the total evapotranspiration depended on the length of the production section of the growing season and agricultural cultivation of crops surveyed.

    KEY WORDS: soil water storage, evapotranspiration, Eastern Slovak Lowland, numerical simulation, crop management

    Address:
    - Branislav Kandra, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, Michalovce 071 01, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+42156 6425 147 Fax.: Email: kandra@uh.savba.sk)
    - Milan Gomobš, Ústav hydrológie SAV Bratislava, Výskumná hydrologická základňa Michalovce, Hollého 42, Michalovce 071 01, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 210 - 219, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Michal Danko, Ladislav Holko, Jana Škvareninová, Jaroslav Škvarenina: Seasonal variability of the leaf area index of spruce forest of different age in the Western Tatra Mountains

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  • The article presents results of the leaf area index (LAI) assessment by means of hemispheric photography and the HemiView software in the mountain catchment of the Jalovecký creek in period June–September 2018. The photographs were taken every two weeks at 10 sites located close to each other; all sites were photographed within 1.5–2 hours. The photographs were masked by a circular mask to remove the effects of the surrounding slopes and decrease the influence of wood. LAI was defined as half of the total leaf area per unit ground area and the values were not corrected with clumping index. Seasonal variability of point values at individual stands expressed by coefficient of variation was 3% to 10%. Point LAI values in the 55–145 years old forest varied approximately between 4,5 and 6 (median 5.2). Median LAI of the 35-years old spruce forest was 6.4. Presence of beech slightly increased LAI (by about 0,5). The uncertainty (error) in the LAI assessment was evaluated by comparison of the values obtained from the same site using the photographs taken on the same day (with time shift not greater than 3 hours) or on two successive days. The uncertainty defined this way reached was in most cases within 0.3–0.7. As expected, the greatest varaibility was found within the stand. This stand variability of LAI was determined from five photographs taken at each stand on 18 September and the coefficients of variation varied between 4%–34% (average 14%). Median LAI calculated from five photographs taken at the stand varied at most sites between 6 and 7 (in the 35-years old forest it was 7.8).

    KEY WORDS: LAI, hemispheric photography, mountain catchment

    Address:
    - Michal Danko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Ondrašovská 16, 031 05 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+42144 5522522 Fax.: Email: danko@uh.savba.sk)
    - Ladislav Holko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Ondrašovská 16, 031 05 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Jana Škvareninová, Technická univerzita vo Zvolene, Masarykova 24, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovenská republika
    - Jaroslav Škvarenina, Technická univerzita vo Zvolene, Masarykova 24, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 220 - 226, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Jana Škvareninová, Helena Hlavatá, Martin Jančo, Jaroslav Škvarenina: Impact of climatological drought on the leaves yellowing phenophase selected tree species

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  • This work evaluates drought impacts on initiation and ending of specific phenophases in autochtonous forest woody plants in Slovak republic. The research ran on an assembly of forest woody plants long-term monitored in the locality Borová hora near Zvolen. The study period encompassed years 2007–2017. There were evaluated rainfall amounts in months June – August. The drought was identified based on climatological indicators such as: Thornthwait drought index (TDI), climatic water balance (CWB) and tropical days period (TDP). There is evident a considerable variability among the years. Hydrological extremes were the most conspicuous in years 2014 and 2015, with drought manifested trough premature leaves yellowing and trough altered trends in initiation and ending phenophases in the woody plants studied.

    KEY WORDS: drought, phenology, forest woody plants, Slovak Republic

    Address:
    - Jana Škvareninová, Technical University in Zvolen, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421455206193 Fax.: Email: skvareninova@tuzvo.sk)
    - Helena Hlavatá, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Ďumbierska 26, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic
    - Martin Jančo, Technical University in Zvolen, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic
    - Jaroslav Škvarenina, Technical University in Zvolen, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 227 - 233, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Helena Hlavatá, Martina Zeleňáková, Patrik Nagy, Zuzana Vranayová: Influence of climate variability on water sources of eastern Slovakia

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  • Assessing the impact of climate variability on water resources influence their sustainable development. During the last years, we have experienced some extreme hydrological but also climatic situations. Often we expose to flash floods or extreme hot dry periods that have been a rare phenomenon in the past. Extreme climatic events have strong influence to water resources. We contributed to the water resource assessment in eastern Slovakia. We compared the abstractions and discharges of water in the Hornád watershed in period 1999–2015; climatic and hydrological variables – precipitation, water temperature, water flow and water level in the station Stratená/Švedlár in period 1954–2015. In the Hornád catchment area at the Hnilec River at river station Stratená, we observed that the average annual water temperatures had risen. Air temperature could have an effect on it. We have observed the use of water in the Hornád basin, where water abstraction has been declining over the observed period, but water discharges have increased.

    KEY WORDS: water resources, climatic variables, hydrological variables

    Address:
    - Helena Hlavatá, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav, regionálne stredisko Košice, Ďumbierska 26, 041 17 Košice, Slovenská republika
    - Martina Zeleňáková, Technická univerzita v Košiciach, Ústav environmentálneho inžinierstva, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk)
    - Patrik Nagy, Technická univerzita v Košiciach, Ústav environmentálneho inžinierstva, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovenská republika
    - Zuzana Vranayová, Technická univerzita v Košiciach, Ústav environmentálneho inžinierstva, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 234 - 243, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Miriam Fendeková, Oliver Horvát, Lotta Blaškovičová, Zuzana Danáčová, Marián Fendek, Oliver Bochníček: Prognosis of climate change driven drought in the Poprad, Torysa and Topľa River Basins

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  • The paper presents drought research results for Poprad, Torysa and Topľa River basins of the Eastern Slovakia. Climatic and hydrological conditions representing the period 1981–2012 were studied. Wet and dry years occurrence were analysed and hydrological balance elements were calculated using the Bilan and Frier models. Next, the prognosis of hydrological balance elements development was calculated using the climate change scenarios KNMI2 and MPI1 data till the year 2100. The results showed that changes in the annual cycle and amount of water in respective elements of the hydrological balance can be expected. The shift of maximum precipitation amounts from the summer to the autumn period could be expected in all evaluated catchments. The total runoff amount should decrease in the Poprad River Basin and instead of the long-term snow melt runoff in the April–June period the short-term intense April runoff is expected. The milder winters in the Torysa and Topľa River Basins should become evident through smaller snow accumulation and larger winter runoff. The evident decrease in the soil moisture and groundwater storage should occur in all three evaluated basins the summer-autumn period.

    KEY WORDS: meteorological and hydrological droughts, Poprad, Torysa and Topľa River Basins, hydrological balance elements change, prognosis

    Address:
    - Miriam Fendeková, Dept. of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: miriam.fendekova@uniba.sk)
    - Oliver Horvát, Dept. of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Lotta Blaškovičová, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Zuzana Danáčová, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Marián Fendek, Dept. of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Oliver Bochníček, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Jeséniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 244 - 255, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Veronika Bačová Mitková, Pavla Pekárová: Analysis of maximum runoff volumes with different time durations of flood waves on the Topľa River

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  • In applied hydrology, it is problematic to assign the flood wave volume values with a certain probability of exceedance to given corresponding T-year discharges. This dependence is highly irregular, and requires to knowledge of the flood wave course of the given probability exceedance. For this reason, this paper deals with the determination of the annual maximum discharge volumes on the Topľa River for the time duration of 2-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-days (Vtmax). The series of 84-years (1931–2015) mean daily discharges of the river Topľa at Hanušovce nad Topľov station was used to calculate the maximum annual volumes of runoff of the river Topľa. Subsequently, the theoretical curves of exceedance of the maximal discharge volumes Vtmax were determined by the Log-Pearson distribution of the Type III. This type of probability distribution is used to estimate maximum (extreme) values across a range of natural processes. The results showed relatively small differences in estimated T-year volumes with comparison of other types of theoretical distribution functions used in hydrological extreme analyses in Slovakia. The second part of the paper is focused on the analysis and statistical evaluation of the interdependence and occurrence of maximum discharges and volumes with different time duration using the copula functions.

    KEY WORDS: Topľa River, maximum runoff volume, T-year volume, peak discharge, probability distribution, copula function

    Address:
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 941 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: mitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 941 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 256 - 261, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Tatiana Kimličková, Yvetta Velísková: Assessment of water streams in condition of Slovakia and possibilities determine mixing parameters in the water stream

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  • Water streams are impacted by anthropogenic activities every day. In order to solve the water quality problem the European Parliament and the Council adopted Directive 2000/60/ES which establishing a framework for water policy, abbreviated as the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This Directive has become mandatory one also in Slovakia. The part of contribution briefly described the assessment of water streams according to the rules of this Directive in Slovakia territory. Important task, linked with water quality assessment, is also the information about pollutant transport in a stream. For this reason, the next part of contribution deals with evaluation of stream ability to spread pollution and decrease pollutant concentration. One of the characteristics determines this property is longitudinal dispersion coefficient. The values of this coefficient are often the key inputs of simulation models which are important tool for assessing measure to maintain or improve water quality in water streams.

    KEY WORDS: water streams, dispersion, longitudinal dispersion coefficient, tracer study

    Address:
    - Tatiana Kimličková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 3229 3509 Fax.: Email: kimlickova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 262 - 271, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Cyril Siman, Yvetta Velísková: Analysis of surface streams pollution sources in Slovakia. Part II. Nonpoint sources

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  • Water quality in the surface stream is influenced by several factors. Distribution of point and nonpoint sources of pollution in a river basin and amount of pollutants released from them to surface streams are the important information. The point source of pollution is a place where we can clearly locate the site of pollutant input into a stream. Identification of nonpoint sources of surface streams pollution is more problematic because there are mostly widespread points in a river basin, from where pollutants get into surface streams. An example of a point source of pollution is the discharge from wastewater treatment plants (industry, urban areas, farms, etc.). The most significant nonpoint source of pollution is considered the application of industrial and organic fertilizers in agricultural activities. The objective of this contribution – both parts – is to identify areas with the potential highest and lowest level of point and nonpoint pollution of surface streams in the period under review. In this, the second part of the contribution, we deal with analysing of nonpoint sources of surface streams pollution in Slovakia territory, while evaluation of point sources of pollution was in the first part of the contribution. The results of the processing of consumption of industrial and organic fertilizers in the period 2006–2015 in Slovakia are presented.

    KEY WORDS: surface streams, nonpoint source of pollution, agriculture, industrial and organic fertilizers

    Address:
    - Cyril Siman, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 49268 259 Fax.: Email: siman@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 272 - 277, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Lucia Balejčíková: Contamination of water and soil by Polychlorinated biphenyls

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  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are stable organic substances that are formed by chlorinating biphenyls and used as insulating fluids in transformers and condensers, in lubricants, plasticizers, paints, adhesives or seals. After contact with living organisms from sources of pollution of soil and water, they cause weakening of the immune system and damage to vital organs. Such ecological burdens have arisen as a result of the production of PCBs in industrial plants in different places of the world in 30-years of 20th century. This paper includes basic physico-chemical properties of PCBs, environment contamination, health risks and possibilities of PCBs degradation.e

    KEY WORDS: polychlorinated biphenyls, physico-chemical properties, contamination, degradation

    Address:
    - Lucia Balejčíková, Research base for the lowland hydrology, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hollého 42, 07101 Michalovce, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.:+42156 6425147 Fax.: Email: balejcikova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 278 - 286, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Nadezhda Shumova: The effect of the Volga-Kama cascade of water reservoirs on the Lower Volga Hydrological Regime

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  • The general operation structure of the Volga-Kama cascade of water reservoirs is described. The effect of the Volga–Kama cascade of water reservoirs on the inter-annual variability and intra-annual distribution of the Lower Volga runoff is appraised. Changes in the main parameters of hydrological high water regime, i.e., the period and starting dates of the main phases, the water level change rate at high water rise and decline, and water discharge and water temperature are considered.

    KEY WORDS: Volga-Kama cascade of water reservoirs, Lower Volga, runoff, inter-annual variability, intra-annual distribution, high water regime

    Address:
    - Nadezhda Shumova, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Gubkina 3, Moscow, 119333, Russia (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: shumova_aqua@rambler.ru)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 287 - 295, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Jana Pařílková, Zuzana Műnsterová, Jan Mikulka, Jan Dušek, Jitka Novotná, David Juřička, Boriss Gjunsburgs, Marian Nedev, Yanko Yanev, Milan Gomboš, Dana Pavelková, Tymoteusz Zydroń, Andrzej Gruchot: Utilization of earth electric impedance mapping in water engineering

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  • The subject of this paper is to present the results of the research that took place on the ground dam of the small water reservoir Bezedník III, which is located in the Litava river basin. It was the first object which was monitored using the method of electrical impedance spectrometry (measuring system with alternating current) applying the apparatus containing a Z-meter device. The method has been selected to identify the observed changes, which were related to variable loads earth dam of small water reservoir by water, in time and space. The regular monitoring of the object was carried out in the years from 2006 to 2012 because of suspicion about its instability due to water loading. The control monitoring of the object was carried out in the years 2016 and 2018. The objective was to document anomalies of the construction of the earth dam in the form of electrical impedance maps, the life of the measuring probes and, at the same time, the adaptability of the measuring apparatus with the set of Z-meter devices. The impedances have been measured periodically in various layers. The initial impedance reached values of 0 to 2200 Ω and during the longitudinal study the values have changed up to three times in comparison with the initial state. The various layers have been proved to behave differently from the others concerning the measured phenomena.

    KEY WORDS: electrical impedance, Z-meter device, earth-fill dam, small water reservoir

    Address:
    - Jana Pařílková, Institute of Water Structure, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Veveří 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: parilkova.j@fce.vutbr.cz)
    - Zuzana Műnsterová, Institute of Water Structure, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Veveří 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
    - Jan Mikulka, Department of Theoretical and Experimental Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3082/12, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
    - Jan Dušek, Department of Theoretical and Experimental Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3082/12, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
    - Jitka Novotná, Department of Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
    - David Juřička, Department of Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
    - Boriss Gjunsburgs, Department of Water Engineering and Technology, The Institute of Heat, Gas and Water Technology, Civil Engineering, Riga Technical University, Azenes iela 16/20, Riga LV-1048, Latvia
    - Marian Nedev, Department of Industrial Automation, Faculty of Automation and Computing, Technical University of Varna, 1 Studentska Str., 9010 Varna, Bulgaria
    - Yanko Yanev, Department of Industrial Automation, Faculty of Automation and Computing, Technical University of Varna, 1 Studentska Str., 9010 Varna, Bulgaria
    - Milan Gomboš, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Dana Pavelková, Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Tymoteusz Zydroń, Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Geotechnics, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying, University of Agriculture in Krakow, al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
    - Andrzej Gruchot, Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Geotechnics, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying, University of Agriculture in Krakow, al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow, Poland

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2018, p. 296 - 303, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Andrej Šoltész, Lea Čubanová, Adam Janík, Dana Baroková: Flood protection measures to protect urban areas

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  • The contribution is presenting possibilities of comprehensive and complex procedures for proper design of flood protection measures in several parts of Slovakia. The complex approach consisted of mutual integration of results of partial mathematical models – rainfall-runoff model, waste water network model, 1-D hydrodynamic modelling of open channel flow together with partially covered flows, 2-D hydrodynamic modelling of flooding the town residential area. According to the modelling process appropriate preventive flood protection measures have been designed and afterwards some of them realised in the territory, i.e. detention reservoirs in the mountain region above the urban regions. Designed flood protection measures should store the flood wave volume and mitigate the effect of flash floods on residential areas of small and even larger cities. Several case studies are described in the contribution to emphasize the variety of flood wave progress, its reduction in discharge and postponing in time in different hydrological, morphological and geological conditions of sub-mountain regions.

    KEY WORDS: flood, flood protection, hydraulic simulations, measures

    Address:
    - Andrej Šoltész, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Lea Čubanová, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Adam Janík, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Dana Baroková, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: dana.barokova@stuba.sk)

     




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