Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 3 - 8, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0001
Scientific Paper, English

Viliam NOVÁK: The influence of land use change on transport of water and energy in ecosystem and climate change

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  • Increasing population led to the increasing demand to food, raw materials, water and energy, followed by the increasing intensification of land use, and increasing industrial and agricultural production. This led to fossil fuels combustion and related carbon dioxide emissions, to building of structures impermeable to water as industrial infrastructure, transport facilities and dwelling structures, which basically change land properties, structure of water and energy fluxes of biosphere, and to climate change of the Earth. The aim of this paper is to quantify the influence of modified evaporating surfaces by land use changes on water and energy fluxes in modified ecosystems. The influence of land use changes on energy fluxes in the boundary layer of atmosphere is compared to the influence of carbon dioxide concentration increase. It was demonstrated that the contribution of land use changes can be more significant than the influence of carbon dioxide emissions on atmosphere boundary layer temperature.

    KEY WORDS: ecosystem, land use changes, carbon dioxide emission, global warming, climate change

    Address:
    - Viliam NOVÁK, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: viliamnovak42@gmail.com)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 9 - 13, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0002
Scientific Paper, English

Lucia TOKOVÁ, Natália BOTKOVÁ, Justína VITKOVÁ, Lenka BOTYANSZKÁ, Kamil SKIC, Angelika GRYTA: Impact of the biochar fraction sizes on the selected hydrophysical properties of silty loam soil

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  • Biochar is a widely known soil amendment. In the presented study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of biochar produced from Swedish willow ((Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) x S. viminalis), ground into three different size fractions (<125µm, 125µm–2 mm and >2 mm) on selected hydrophysical properties of silty loam soils. Biochar was applied in the amount of 1.5% per weight of dry matter and the results were compared with pure silty loam soil (control). Data of biochar application impact on the selected hydrophysical properties of silty loam soil were statistically analyzed. In general, our results suggest that applied different size fractions of biochar does not have a statistically significant effect on particle density, however does have an effect on bulk density, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of silty loam soil. With regard to bulk density, a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed compared to the control and it ranged from 4.18 to 8.13% from the smallest to the largest biochar fraction. The decrease of bulk density further led to a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in porosity of all three treatments. Saturated hydraulic conductivity tended to increase as the size fraction of the biochar used was progressively reduced. This increase ranged from 63.77% (for biochar with size fraction >2 mm) to 112.42% (for biochar with size fraction <125µm) compared to pure silty loam soil (control).

    KEY WORDS: hydrophysical properties, silty loam soil, biochar fraction size

    Address:
    - Lucia TOKOVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: tokova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Natália BOTKOVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; Institute of Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, SUA, Hospodárska 7, 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
    - Justína VITKOVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Lenka BOTYANSZKÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Kamil SKIC, Angelika Gryta, M.Sc., Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
    - Angelika GRYTA, Angelika Gryta, M.Sc., Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 14 - 23, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0003
Scientific Paper, English

Lynda CHEBBAH, Abdesselem KABOUR: Characterization of leakage water flows in the subsoil of Beni Haroun dam by hydrogeological approach

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  • Dams are designed and built to withstand severe destabilising conditions, including seepage problems, which are very often linked to localized discontinuity stress in the rock foundations, or in the banks. This situation allows water to take different circulation paths, and consequently jeopardizes the stability of the dam and reduces its useful capacity. The Beni Haroun dam, located in the North-Eastern part of Algeria on the Oued El-Kebir, with a water storage capacity of about 1 billion m3, the dam is located on a Ypresian (Karst) limestone mass with an estimated annual leakage volume of 31.536 hm3. The present work focuses on the identification of the water leakage origin in the Beni Haroun dam, using a hydrogeological approach, which consists in interpreting the correlation between the water level in the reservoir and that in the piezometers installed around the dam, for the period 2003 to 2021. The results revealed some interesting findings.

    KEY WORDS: dam, leakage, piezometer, karst, Beni Haroun

    Address:
    - Lynda CHEBBAH, Department of Civil and hydraulic engineering, University Centre of Abdelhafidh Boussouf, Laboratory of Modeling and Socio-Economic Analysis in Water Science – MASESE Lab., BP 25, Mila, Algeria (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: cheblyn@yahoo.fr)
    - Abdesselem KABOUR, Department of Civil and hydraulic engineering, University Centre of Abdelhafidh Boussouf, Laboratory of Modeling and Socio-Economic Analysis in Water Science – MASESE Lab., BP 25, Mila, Algeria

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 24 - 32, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0004
Scientific Paper, English

Borys KHRYSTIUK, Liudmyla GORBACHOVA: Long-term forecasting of appearance dates of ice phenomena and freeze-up at the Dnipro Cascade reservoirs by teleconnection indicators

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  • Long-term forecasting of the ice regime of water bodies is a difficult task and is still unresolved in the part of improving the accuracy of forecasts. The objective of this paper is the development of the long-term forecasting methods of appearance dates of ice phenomena and freeze-up at the Dnipro Cascade reservoirs by teleconnection indicators. The research was carried out based on the observation data of 38 water gauges, which are located on 6 reservoirs of the Dnipro Cascade. The appearance dates of ice phenomena and freeze-up for the period from the observation beginning at each water gauges to 2020, inclusive, were used. In addition, in the research were also used the information about the teleconnection indicators, namely 34 atmospheric indices, sea surface temperature indices, teleconnection indices and patterns, that are determined by the National Weather Service (NWS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of United States of America (NOAA USA). The long-term forecasting methods of the appearance dates of ice phenomena and freeze-up at the Dnipro Cascade reservoirs were developed by searching for the best correlation or regression relationship between dates and teleconnection indicators. The probabilities of acceptable error of the developed methods are in the range of 61–72%, which corresponds to the category of "satisfactory" assessment of the method quality. It makes it possible to recommend them for use in operational forecasting.

    KEY WORDS: ice phenomena, freeze-up, Dnipro reservoirs, teleconnection indices and patterns, forecasting equations

    Address:
    - Borys KHRYSTIUK, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute 3, Prospekt Nauky 03028, Kyiv, Ukraine
    - Liudmyla GORBACHOVA, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute 37, Prospekt Nauky 03028, Kyiv, Ukraine (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: gorbachova@uhmi.org.ua)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 33 - 42, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0005
Scientific Paper, English

Adrián VARGA, Yvetta VELÍSKOVÁ, Marek SOKÁČ, Valentín SOČUVKA, Pavol MIKULA: Analysis of seasonal changes of thermal stratification in reservoir for drinking water supply (Slovakia, Turček reservoir)

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  • Water reservoirs are important source in supplying inhabitants with drinking water of high–quality. In total, there are 8 reservoirs in Slovakia for drinking water supply purpose. The youngest of them is the Turček reservoir located in the middle of Slovakia, which is also the object of this study. In the article, we deal with the thermal stratification in it during 3 seasons (spring, summer, autumn). Based on the analysis of data provided by the operator of the reservoir from its operation start, it came out that the thermal stratification in the reservoir occurs significantly during the summer. In the given hydro–climatic conditions, it starts at the end of April and ends in October. We also analyzed the existence of the thermocline layer, which occurs mainly in the summer, but also in spring and in autumn, but not so significantly and regularly. Thermal stratification can be classified also by Thermocline Strength Index (TSI) that indicates the steepness of the thermocline or the average gradient of the thermocline layer, so the part of the study was focused also to this indicator.

    KEY WORDS: water reservoir, water temperature, stratification, thermocline

    Address:
    - Adrián VARGA, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; Institute of Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering SUA in Nitra, Tulipánová 7, 949 76, Nitra, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: varga@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta VELÍSKOVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Marek SOKÁČ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Valentín SOČUVKA, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Pavol MIKULA, Slovak Water Management Enterprise, Corporate Directorate, Martinská 49, 821 05 Bratislava – Ružinov; Workplace: Department of water management laboratories, Kuzmányho 10, 012 05 Žilina, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 43 - 51, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0006
Scientific Paper, English

Patrik SLEZIAK, Martin JANČO, Michal DANKO: Dynamics of water temperature in a small mountain catchment

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  • Water temperature has a significant effect on the river fauna and flora and changes the quality of the aquatic ecosystem. Water temperature similar to other physical and chemical indicators of water quality enters into the assessment of the ecological status of surface waters in accordance with the requirements of the framework directive on water (RSV EU). Therefore, it is important to monitor it and also to know to what extent it is influenced by other factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the short-term water temperature development and also to analyse its regime with respect to influencing factors, especially air temperature and altitude. The study is conducted in the foreland and mountain part of the Jalovecký Creek catchment in Slovakia and uses hourly data from the hydrological year 2022 (November 1, 2021 – October 31, 2022). We performed field water temperature measurements along the entire Jalovecký creek (six sites at altitudes from 560 to 1,110 m a.s.l.) to better evaluate the water temperature regime. Seasonality of water temperature was analyzed by statistical analysis of time series. We used scatter-plots to assess the relationship among water temperature, air temperature and altitude. The analysis of the water temperature measurements showed that the highest mean hourly/daily water temperature was recorded at Ondrašová site (22.3°C/18.3°C), and the lowest was measured at the Hlboká valley (-1.2°C/-1.5°C). This fact resulted both from the altitude of the stations (Ondrašová 560 m a.s.l., Hlboká valley 1,110 m a.s.l.). The lowest mean monthly air temperature was measured in December (-0.2°C), while the highest was observed in July (15.7°C). The highest variations of the mean monthly water temperatures among the studied sites were observed during summer (June – August), when mean monthly temperature range reached even 8.0°C. The relationship between water and air temperature did not differ significantly among the investigated sites. However, the higher correlations were found for higher altitude (i.e., Hlboká valley). The results of the work could contribute to a better understanding of temperature conditions in high mountain streams.

    KEY WORDS: water temperature, air temperature, altitude, mountain stream

    Address:
    - Patrik SLEZIAK, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: : sleziak@uh.savba.sk)
    - Martin JANČO, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Michal DANKO, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 52 - 62, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0007
Scientific Paper, English

Veronika BAČOVÁ MITKOVÁ, Pavla PEKÁROVÁ, Dana HALMOVÁ: Investigation of water temperature changes in the Hron River in the context of expected climate change

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  • The water temperature is one of the physico – chemical indicator of water quality that plays a crucial role in affecting the biological processes in surface water. In the context of the climate changes, there are also changes in the temperature of the water in the streams. The paper presents an analysis of long-term data of the water temperature in the Hron River at two selected gauging stations: Banská Bystrica and Brehy, during the period of 1962–2020. The analysis was conducted using a long series of water temperature measurements. The aim of the study is to detect whether significant trends occur in the time series of water temperature. The first part of the paper dealt with the trend analyses of monthly and annual water temperature. The following section is focused on determination, investigation and evaluation of 1-, 3-, 7-day maximum water temperatures. The impact of rising air temperatures on water temperature is critical for protecting water resources and ensuring water quality. In the last part of the study, the monthly water temperature of the Hron River at two gauging stations was modeled using air temperature. The best for Hron at B. Bystrica was the model: SARIMA(1,0,0)x(0,1,1)12 + 1 regressor, and for Hron at Brehy the best was the model: SARIMA(1,0,0)x(1,0,2)12 + 2 regressors, with a high correlation coefficient of 0.983 at B. Bystrica and 0.985 at Brehy. Results showed that a 1°C increase in air temperature caused the water temperature to rise by 0.35°C at Banská Bystrica and 0.57°C at Brehy, while a 3°C increase resulted in a rise of 1.05°C at Banská Bystrica and 1.75°C at Brehy. The study concludes that the SARIMA model can effectively simulate changes in water temperature based on changes in air temperature.

    KEY WORDS: Climate change, Hron River, water temperature, air temperature, trends, stochastic models

    Address:
    - Veronika BAČOVÁ MITKOVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: : mitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavla PEKÁROVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Dana HALMOVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 63 - 72, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0008
Scientific Paper, English

Wael ALMIKAEEL, Luara Cunha de ALMEIDA, Lea ČUBANOVÁ, Andrej ŠOLTÉSZ, Jakub MYDLA, Dana BAROKOVÁ: Understanding the impact of drought on Topľa River discharge seasonality

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  • This study examines the effect of drought on the discharge seasonality of the Topľa River from 1988 to 2020. Each year is classified into dry, normal, or wet years using the water-bearing coefficient as a drought index. The Seasonal and Trend decomposition using the Loess time series decomposition method was used to compare discharge patterns between these groups. The results demonstrate a significant impact of drought on the seasonal discharge of the Topľa River, with substantially lower discharge and affected seasonality during dry years. The study findings demonstrate that the impact of the drought is altering the seasonal discharge pattern of the river. This highlights the importance of considering the effects of drought in water management and resource planning, particularly in the face of climate change and increasing water scarcity. These findings provide valuable insights for informing water management policies and practices in the region and can guide future research on the impact of drought on river systems.

    KEY WORDS: time series decomposition, drought analysis, seasonality analysis, climate change, water resources

    Address:
    - Wael ALMIKAEEL, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 2766/11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: wael.almikaeel@stuba.sk)
    - Luara Cunha de ALMEIDA, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 2766/11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Lea ČUBANOVÁ, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 2766/11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Andrej ŠOLTÉSZ, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 2766/11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Jakub MYDLA, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 2766/11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Dana BAROKOVÁ, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 2766/11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 73 - 81, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0009
Scientific Paper, English

Zuzana SABOVÁ, Silvia KOHNOVÁ: On future changes in the long-term seasonal discharges in selected basins of Slovakia

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  • Climate change and its impact on hydrological characteristics is a research topic of increasing interest. Studies that examine historical, current or future changes in hydrological regimes are important for understanding future changes in the water balance and its components. This study analyses changes in long-term discharges in the summer and winter half-year and the baseflow index for eight selected river basins in Slovakia till 2100. For the analysis, data observed from the period 1981–2010 were used to calibrate the HBV-type rainfall-runoff TUW model. To simulate future discharges up to the 2100 horizon, two climate scenarios were used, i.e., the Dutch KNMI and the German MPI. The analysis was performed for four selected periods with a duration of 30 years. The results point to the most significant changes in the increase in long-term seasonal discharges in the winter half-year by 2100. In the future, the summer period will probably be characterised by a reduction in long-term seasonal discharges and decrease in the base flow index in all of the basins analysed.

    KEY WORDS: seasonal discharges, baseflow index, the KNMI and MPI climate scenarios, the HBV model, the TUW model

    Address:
    - Zuzana SABOVÁ, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 811 07 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: zuzana.sabova@stuba.sk)
    - Silvia KOHNOVÁ, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 811 07 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 82 - 93, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0010
Scientific Paper, English

Roman VÝLETA, Kamila HLAVČOVÁ, Silvia KOHNOVÁ, Tomáš BACIGÁL, Anna LIOVÁ, Ján SZOLGAY: An assessment of the uncertainty of the extremity of flood waves with vine copulas

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  • Flood hazard connected with the failure of hydraulic structures and flood risk associated with areas subject to flooding need to be estimated using flood hydrographs. Multivariate statistics of flood wave parameters enable quantitative conclusions about such flood hazards and risks. This study focuses on uncertainties in their estimates using unbounded and bounded marginal distributions of flood durations in the joint modelling of flood peaks, volumes, and durations with vine copulas. We have respected the seasonality of floods by distinguishing between the durations of summer and winter floods. We propose to use the bounded Johnson’s SB distribution to represent the hydrological constraints associated with flood durations. The practical consequences of selecting various unbounded and bounded distributions for modelling flood durations for the joint overall and conditional probabilities of the exceedance of flood peaks, volumes, and durations were demonstrated on data from the Parná River in Slovakia. Differences in modelling joint probabilities due to the tail behaviours of the marginal distributions tested were found. Although these are not critical for practical applications, accepting upper and lower bounds as hydrological constraints improves the quality of the statistical models.

    KEY WORDS: vine copulas, assessment of uncertainty, flood wave characteristics, conditional probability, flood hazard

    Address:
    - Roman VÝLETA, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: roman.vyleta@stuba.sk)
    - Kamila HLAVČOVÁ, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Silvia KOHNOVÁ, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Tomáš BACIGÁL, Department of Mathematics and Descriptive Geometry, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Anna LIOVÁ, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Ján SZOLGAY, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 94 - 100, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0011
Scientific Paper, English

Maksym MARTYNIUK, Valeriya OVCHARUK: Identification of areas with potential significant flood risk using specialized software in the Vistula river basin within Ukraine

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  • In the period of climate change, the frequency of extreme hydrological phenomena increases, therefore, an extremely important problem in the hydrological study of the territory is the determination of areas with potentially significant risks of flooding, as well as the construction of maps of threats and risks of flooding. The basin of the Vistula river within Ukraine, located in the west of Ukraine, is in a zone of sufficient moisture and suffers from floods almost every year. A significant problem of the hydrological study of this basin is the identification of areas with potential significant flood risks, as well as the creation of flood hazard and risk maps. The paper presents the methodological principles and algorithm for using the HEC-RAS software in modeling the flooded territory with the corresponding calculated characteristics of the maximum runoff. The resulting maps of areas with potential significant flood risk (APSFR) in the area of Busk are also presented.

    KEY WORDS: Vistula, flood, maximum runoff, HEC-RAS

    Address:
    - Maksym MARTYNIUK, Odessa State Environmental University, 15 Lvovskaya Str., Odessa, 65016, Ukraine (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: martyniuk0904@gmail.com)
    - Valeriya OVCHARUK, Odessa State Environmental University, 15 Lvovskaya Str., Odessa, 65016, Ukraine

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 101 - 112, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0012
Scientific Paper, English

Khadidja SEMARI, Khaled KORICHI: Water erosion mapping using several erosivity factors in the Macta Basin (North-West of Algeria)

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  • The quantification of the water erosion using empirical models has been applied for several regions around the world. Indeed, the model proposed by Wischmeier and Smith also called RUSLE model remains the most used approach. The main purpose of this work is to produce a soil losses vulnerability map of the Macta Basin and to determine its water erosivity potential, taking into account four rainfall erosivity indices that have been widely applied in the Mediterranean regions namely: Arnoldus index, MFI Modified Fournier Index, Roose index and Rango-Arnoldus index. The calculation of soil losses with the RUSLE model gives respectively the values: 7.94, 13.98, 12.5 and 20.6 t ha-1 year-1. By comparing with other basins of the same characteristics, we note a good correlation.

    KEY WORDS: Macta Basin, Water erosion, Rainfall erosivity, RUSLE, Soil loss

    Address:
    - Khadidja SEMARI, Laboratory of Water Sciences and Techniques, University of Mustapha Stambouli Mascara, BP 305 Mamounia Street, Mascara, Algeria
    - Khaled KORICHI, Laboratory of Civil Engineering and Environment, Djillali Liabes University of Sidi Bel Abbes, BP 89 Sidi Bel Abbes 22000, Algeria (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: kh.korichi@gmail.com)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 113 - 121, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0013
Scientific Paper, English

Pavla PEKÁROVÁ, Viktor VYSHNEVSKYI, Ján PEKÁR, Pavol MIKLÁNEK: Changes in water balance components of river basins in the Slovak Republic and Ukraine

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  • This study examined the long-term changes in water balance in five river basins located in Slovakia and Ukraine. Despite small increase in precipitation between 1961–1990 and 1991–2020, the study found a clear trend of decreasing water discharge, accompanied by an increase in evaporation and a significant decrease in the runoff coefficient. Data from two Slovak rivers and three Ukrainian rivers were used, chosen based on three criteria: the presence of at least two meteorological stations within the river basin, a long-term observation period, and minimal human impact on river runoff. The results of statistical analysis indicate that the Belá river basin in the Tatra Mountains had the smallest decrease in the runoff coefficient (–1.28%). The largest decrease in the runoff coefficient (–34%) was observed in the Sula River catchment area with the smallest altitude and the most eastern location. On average, the runoff coefficient decreased by 14% in studied basins. The study highlights the importance of monitoring water balance changes, particularly in regions where water resources are limited.

    KEY WORDS: water balance, discharge, precipitation, evaporation, runoff coefficient

    Address:
    - Pavla PEKÁROVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: pekarova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Viktor VYSHNEVSKYI, National Aviation University, Liubomyra Huzara Av.1, 03058 Kyiv, Ukraine
    - Ján PEKÁR, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Mlynská dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Pavol MIKLÁNEK, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 122 - 133, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0014
Scientific Paper, English

Miroslav KANDERA, Roman VÝLETA: Development and validation of an Approximate Redistributive Balance model to estimate the distribution of water resources using the WEAP: The lower Hron river basin, Slovakia

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  • The Approximate Redistributive Balance (ARB) model integrated within the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) software environment aims to retrospectively simulate the flows measured by water gauging stations with sufficient accuracy according to objectives of study. It does so by initially approximating the runoff distribution with a rainfall-runoff model along the modeled streams and then redistributing the difference between the sum of the total simulated runoff to the water gauging station and the flow in the water gauging station (cleaned of any anthropogenic influences). Due to its different approach to the modeling method and the user-friendly environment of the WEAP software, this model, with a relatively small scale of input data, retrospectively simulates flows along the modeled streams with a high degree of accuracy (NSE = 0.89 for similar hydrological regime of validation and calibration basins). This paper describes its development and basic characteristics and provides partial insights into the degree of accuracy with which it can simulate monthly streamflow at water gauging stations and along modeled rivers. It can therefore be a precise foundation for analyses of water management balance scenarios.

    KEY WORDS: water balance, hydrological components, water evaluation and planning, water resources, model development

    Address:
    - Miroslav KANDERA, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: miroslav.kandera@stuba.sk)
    - Roman VÝLETA, Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 134 - 140, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0015
Scientific Paper, English

Radoslav SCHÜGERL, Yvetta VELÍSKOVÁ: Change of the Manning´s coefficient in small stream influenced by vegetation

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  • Aquatic vegetation in natural streams impedes the flow of water and may increase flood risks. This paper analyses impact of aquatic vegetation density on the dynamics of flow process by evaluation of the Manning´s coefficient value obtained from field measurements. Measurements performed during two years (2020 and 2021) along the part of the Malina stream were used for determination of the Manning´s roughness coefficient value for different extents of river bed overgrowth during the year. This stream, located at the Zahorská Lowland, is a stream with a low longitudinal slope (0.00037–0.00039) and aquatic vegetation occurrence. Value of the Manning´s coefficient is varying during the growing season in the range from 0.025 to 0.157 for the year 2021 and from 0.038 to 0.266 for the year 2021.

    KEY WORDS: Manning coefficient, aquatic vegetation, growing season, discharge and flow conditions

    Address:
    - Radoslav SCHÜGERL, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: schugerl@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta VELÍSKOVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 141 - 150, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0016
Scientific Paper, English

Viera KOVÁČOVÁ: Deterioration of water quality in aquatic system

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  • The need to reduce anthropogenic pollutants inputs to aquatic ecosystems in order to protect drinking-water supplies and to reduce eutrophication, including the proliferation of harmful algal blooms. Nitrogen (N), needed for protein synthesis, and phosphorus (P), needed for DNA, RNA, and energy transfer, are both required to support aquatic plant growth and are the key limiting nutrients in most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Most researchers have concluded that no single factor is responsible, but rather interactions between two or more factors control the rates. River aquatic systems that have been heavily loaded with nutrients can display P limitation, N limitation, and colimitation, and what nutrient is most limiting can change both seasonally and spatial. At the transition between fresh and saline water, P can often be the limiting nutrient. P and dissolved silicate are also often limiting during the spring, with N limitation commonly occurring during summer months. Algal production during summer is supported by rapidly recycled P within the water column or released from sediments.

    KEY WORDS: surface water, pollution, eutrophication, nutrients

    Address:
    - Viera KOVÁČOVÁ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: kovacova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2023, p. 151 - 158, doi: 10.31577/ahs-2023-0024.01.0017
Scientific Paper, English

Slavomír HOLOŠ, Anton ZVALA, Peter ŠURDA, Ľubomír LICHNER: Fire induced water repellency in the forest soil covered with different types of forest floor biomass

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  • The intensity and severity of a wildfire can influence the persistence of soil water repellency (SWR) in the affected area. The effects of fire on the SWR of forest soils depend on the type of forest vegetation, the quantity of the organic component of the forest soil, the characteristics of the organic matter, the soil type, and its properties. Three study sites were located in the Borská nížina lowland (southwestern Slovakia). The first site IL1 represents a 100-years-old stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), the second site IL2 is a 30-years-old stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and the third site LL is a deciduous stand with a predominance of alder (Alnus glutinosa). The article aimed to determine the influence of forest floor biomass (FFB) in IL1, IL2 and LL on SWR induced by different heating temperatures. WDPT test was measured on the surface of burned mineral soil samples without FFB, and two series of measurements were carried out in samples covered with FFB. First were carried on the surface of burned FFB and second, under burned FFB on the exposed mineral soil. Our first hypothesis was that heating temperatures would induce higher SWR persistence on soil covered with forest floor biomass compared to bare soil; the second hypothesis was that different forest floor biomass would induce different post-fire SWR persistence. The differences between the samples covered with FFB and samples without FFB in mean values of SWR induced by different temperatures were not statistically significant for either research site. On the other hand, the highest individual SWR values were measured at or below the forest floor biomass in both deciduous and coniferous forests. The second hypothesis was not confirmed. We found similar fire-induced SWR in the different types of forest floor biomass and the soil under forest floor biomass.

    KEY WORDS: soil water repellency, soil heating, water drop penetration time, forest floor biomass

    Address:
    - Slavomír HOLOŠ, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; Institute of Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, Hospodárska 7, 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
    - Anton ZVALA, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    - Peter ŠURDA, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: surda@uh.savba.sk)
    - Ľubomír LICHNER, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

     




AHS Editorial Office
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah
email: Yvetta.Veliskova@savba.sk

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh

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