Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2015, p. 3 - 12, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Justína Vitková, Július Šútor, Peter Šurda, Peter Stradiot: Possibilities of interpretation of monitored values of water supplies in soil

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  • A water supplies in soil aeration zone, as a source of life for agricultural and forest ecosystems, are the source of life for given region. They are strongly affected by human activity, and they are influenced by slow global changes, respectively one of their phenomena known as the glass house effect or climatic change. For interpretation of sets of data on dynamics of soil moisture in the soil aeration zone to information for different areas of interest there are used results of direct monitoring in a given territory. In literature, there are quite wide possibilities of processing and interpretation of data sets obtained from monitoring. Specific selection of a possibility with respect to impact of climate change and human activity on vegetation cover of an area is oriented to processing and interpretation that uses concept of hydrolimits, climatic index of irrigation, respectively climatic water balance and evapotranspiration deficit. This paper presents possibilities of processing data on soil moisture dynamics in the soil aeration zone, obtained from direct monitoring, to an output information which is determined by objectives and intentions of users of that information. For processing, there are used data obtained from monitoring in localities Veľké Leváre in the region of Zahorska Lowland.

    KEY WORDS: soil water supplies, monitoring of soil moisture, dynamic of soil water storage

    Address:
    - Justína Vitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 49268302 Fax.: Email: vitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Július Šútor, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Peter Šurda, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Peter Stradiot, Výskumný ústav vodného hospodárstva, Nábrežie arm. gen. L. Svobodu 5, 812 49 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2015, p. 13 - 22, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Dana Kotorová, Ladislav Kováč, Dana Pavelková, Branislav Kandra: The water storage in various soil profiles of non-regularly flooded area

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  • The aim of this contribution was to compare development of water storage in selected soil profile in the dry poldre Beša locality after its saturation in years 2006 and 2010. On the basis of soil sampling during summer time, the effect of experimental year and soil profile to maximum, average and minimum soil water storage in the depth 0.0 – 0.6 m was valued. Observed water content values were recounted at maximum water content on percentage of field water capacity (θPK), at average water content on percentage of threshold point (θZD), at minimum water content on percentage of wilting point (θV). Obtained data were tested by statistical methods. Analyse of variance confirmed statistically significant effect of experimental year and soil profile to maximum, average and minimum water storage in soil of polder Beša. From account of F-values resulted the more significant effect of year on soil water storage than soil profile. Maximum soil water storage reached 52.76 – 119.52 % of moisture of field water capacity, average soil water storage reached 70.88 – 125.44 % of moisture of threshold point and for minimum soil water storage it was 91.62 – 179.36 % of moisture of wilting point. The effect of polder saturation at extreme flood situations on water storage in years following after this saturation is expected.

    KEY WORDS: soil water storage, clayey-loamy soil, non-regularly flooded area

    Address:
    - Dana Kotorová, NPPC – Výskumný ústav agroekológie, Špitálska 1273/12, 071 1 Michalovce, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 056 6443888 Fax.: +421 056 6420205 Email: kotorova@minet.sk)
    - Ladislav Kováč, NPPC – Výskumný ústav agroekológie, Špitálska 1273/12, 071 1 Michalovce, Slovenská republika
    - Dana Pavelková, Ústav hydrológie SAV – VHZ Michalovce, J. Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika
    - Branislav Kandra, Ústav hydrológie SAV – VHZ Michalovce, J. Hollého 42, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2015, p. 23 - 31, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Viera Kováčová: Estimation of transport parameters of nitrogen ions in the soil profile

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  • Nitrogen transformation in soil, intake in NH4+ a NO3- form, flood out and leaching to surface water and groundwater puts environmental pressure on soil and water contamination. To identify the likely factors influencing nitrogen contamination is one of the most important assignments. It was found out, that increased agricultural activity leads on average to higher nitrate contamination. Nitrogen occurrences in organic and inorganic form in pedosphere. Great part is fixed (immobilised), only small part is mobile. Free part of nitrogen represent mainly N-NO3-, N-NO2-, N-NH4+ ions and molecules NO, NO2, N2. These ions can migrate, sorb, come under transformations and leaching to the depth to groundwater surface. The concentration vs. time curve (elution curve) contains most of the information on the interaction between the solute and the soil. The experiments studying transport of nitrogen ions (NO3- and NH4+) were conducted by soil column leaching tests for unsaturated steady-state flow, defined geometry of the soil columns, defined volumetric water content, dry mass density. The experiments were conducted for various average pore velocities v1 v2 , v3 and initial ion concentrations co = 100, 200, 300, 500 mg.l-1. By interpreting of c/co = f (t) dependences (breakthrough curves) the significant values of (c/co)max and t(c/co)max for nitrogen ions were obtained and the dispersion-diffusion coefficients Di were estimated. The transport parameters were obtained for calcaro-haplic phaeozem as the input values for mathematical modelling of the movement of nitrogen conpounds in Žitný ostrov region.

    KEY WORDS: nitrogen ions, soil profile, surface water, groundwater, transport parameters

    Address:
    - Viera Kováčová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: kovacova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2015, p. 32 - 41, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Ladislav Holko, Jozef Hlavčo, Michal Danko, Zdeno Kostka, Jiří Kučera: Spruce transpiration in the Jalovecký creek catchment, the Western Tatra Mountains, in summer 2014

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  • The article evaluates sap flow measurements of the spruce trees near the forest line (altitude 1450 m a.s.l.) at site Červenec, the Western Tatra Mountains, in summer 2014. Sap flow through three spruce trees was measured by the heat balance method. Two sensors were installed in each tree. Supplementary measurements in different climatic, vegetation and soil conditions were conducted in Liptovský Mikuláš (570 m a.s.l.). Data from Červenec showed that the difference in sap flow between two sensors in the same tree was as high as 40%. Daily totals of the sap flow were best correlated with global radiation and air humidity. Total transpiration of two spruce trees measured at Červenec between 17 July and 16 August 2014 was 42.6 and 65.9 mm, respectively. Rainfall amount in the same period was 166.1 mm and forest interception measured at two points near the research plot was 6% and 17%. Maximum daily amount of transpired water was approximately 40 kg. Sap flow in Liptovský Mikuláš was higher than at the forest line (at Červenec). Seasonal maximum of the sap flow in Liptovský Mikuláš was observed around the mid-June.

    KEY WORDS: sap flow, heat balance method, spruce

    Address:
    - Ladislav Holko, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421445522522 Fax.: Email: holko@uh.savba.sk)
    - Jozef Hlavčo, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Michal Danko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Zdeno Kostka, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Jiří Kučera, EMS Brno, Turistická 5, 621 00 Brno, Česká republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2015, p. 42 - 50, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Michal Danko, Ladislav Holko, Zdeněk Kostka, Pavel Tachecí: Simulation of snow water equivalent, snowmelt rate and runoff in a montain catchment during winter period

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  • The article presents the results of rainall-runoff process simulations in the Jalovecký creek catchment by the distributed hydrological model Mike SHE for winters (November to May) 2002- 2014. Snow water equivalent was acceptably simulated by the temperature index approach for most sites located in both open and forested areas. Acceptable simulation of the snow water equivalent resulted in a good simulation of catchment runoff during first spring events initiated by the snowmelt. Simulated snowmelt rate compared well with the measured values for longer periods only. Simulation of the spatial distribution of the snowmelt rate reflected dominantly the influence of altitude.

    KEY WORDS: distributed hydrological model, Mike SHE, snow, snowmelt rate, mountain catchment

    Address:
    - Michal Danko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421445522522 Fax.: Email: danko@uh.savba.sk)
    - Ladislav Holko, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Zdeněk Kostka, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Pavel Tachecí, DHI a.s., Na Vrších 5/1490, 100 00 Praha 10,, Česká republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2015, p. 51 - 59, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Roman Výleta, Ján Szolgay: Stochastic modelling of mean monthly flows using a Thomas-Friering model for the needs of engineering hydrology

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  • The design of water management systems and their parts usually depends on the observed hydrological time series of flows, precipitations, temperatures et al. Information obtained from these data can be used as a base for the assessment of the system parameters, they are also used in the process of optimisation the conditions of their future operation and in the assessment of possible economic risks linked with their design. This paper deals with a modelling of mean monthly flows using a stochastic Thomas-Fiering model. This work introduces a modification where a random number with a normal distribution in the Thomas-Fiering model is transformed with the Wilson-Hilferty transformation into a number with an asymmetric distribution. The model is used to generate synthetic hydrological time series of monthly flows of arbitrary length, which share their statistical characteristics with the time series observed in the past. The synthetic time series of monthly flows create a set of various hydrological situations which occurrence is probable in the future. This methodical approach could be incorporated into the design process of water management systems and in the presented work is tested in the Horné Orešany flow gauge at the Parná creek.

    KEY WORDS: Thomas-Fiering model, Wilson-Hilferty transformation, stochastic modelling, mean monthly flows

    Address:
    - Roman Výleta, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 59274 727 Fax.: Email: roman.vyleta@stuba.sk)
    - Ján Szolgay, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 810 05 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2015, p. 60 - 68, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Peter Ivan, Viliam Macura: Modification of measured habitat suitability curve for wide range of flows

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  • The article is focused on objectification of process of evaluation of the quality of aquatic habitat in mountain and piedmont streams by the methodology IFIM (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology – IFIM). The quality of aquatic habitat in this methodology is interpreted according to a bioindication. The bioindication in this paper is represented by the ichthyofauna. The availability of aquatic habitat was represented by habitat suitability curve of depth. The evaluation was done by System of Environmental Flow Analysis (SEFA). SEFA is new software that implements the substance of the IFIM. The results are indicating that habitat suitability curve created according to one ichthyological measurement is not adequate to describe the aquatic habitat in wider range of discharges. For this reason, the scientific research was oriented on modification of habitat suitability curve for a wider flow range: from minimal to maximal flow rate, when the changes in preference of abiotic parameters of aquatic habitat appear. The modification of the habitat suitability curve is applied on the Hybica River.

    KEY WORDS: area weighted suitability (AWS), System of Environmental Flow Analysis (SEFA), habitat suitability curve (HSC)

    Address:
    - Peter Ivan, Stavebná Fakulta, STU v Bratislave, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Radlinského 11, blok C, 12. posch., 810 05 Bratislava 1, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+ 421 (2) 5927 4617 Fax.: + 421 (2) 5292 3575 Email: peter.ivan@stuba.sk)
    - Viliam Macura, Stavebná Fakulta, STU v Bratislave, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny, Radlinského 11, blok C, 12. posch., 810 05 Bratislava 1, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2015, p. 69 - 75, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Marek Sokáč, Yvetta Velísková, Pavel Berta: Sensitivity analysis of the pollution transport numeric modelling results on the longitudinal dispersion coefficient values: case study Grote Laak

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  • Paper describes a sensitivity analysis of the results of the numerical model MIKE 11 (one-dimensional model) on input values of the dispersion coefficient. The coefficient of longitudinal dispersion is the main characteristic describing the rate of longitudinal dispersion in the river. The study was conducted on a 13 km long section of the Grote Laak River, near the confluence with the Grote Nete River near Westerlo (Belgium). The Grote Laak River is a small lowland streams (drainage channel), the discharge in the river is about 1,6 m3s-1, the width of the river at a water level is approximately 15 m. Within a study framework it was carried out a large number of numerical experiments with different values of the dispersion coefficient (D = 1 - 20 m2.s-1). In order to filter out of the results the influence of the flow velocity on the dispersion were three series of numerical simulations performed - with the values of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient linearly dependent on the flow velocity up to values, independent of the flow velocity. In the study were used the results of previous research work, in which were measured dispersion coefficients in Slovakia in the rivers of a similar nature, such as the Grote Laak River. The results confirmed the sensitivity of the model to the dispersion coefficient input values. The degree of correlation and dependency is documented graphically in figures and graphs. The work further discusses degree of dependence between the dispersion coefficient input values, as well as the effects of uncertainty when entering a value for the dispersion coefficient simulation results.

    KEY WORDS: dispersion coefficient, dispersion, MIKE 11

    Address:
    - Marek Sokáč, Katedra zdravotného a environmentálneho inžinierstva, Slovenská technická univerzita, Stavebná fakulta, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 2 592 74 286 Fax.: Email: marek.sokac@stuba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Pavel Berta, Katedra zdravotného a environmentálneho inžinierstva, Slovenská technická univerzita, Stavebná fakulta, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2015, p. 76 - 83, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Branislav Pramuk, Pavla Pekárová: Identification of the Tisa and Morava Rivers discharge regime changes

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  • This paper is focused on evaluation of extremes, changes of discharge regimes and on the number, duration time and size of high flows flood waves of the Tisa River and of the Morava River. For analysis of changes of extreme discharges were used data series of the daily discharges (Project No. 9 IHP UNESCO – Flood regime of rivers in the Danube River basin). In this paper were selected two rivers: Tisa-Vásárosnamény (1882–2007) and Morava - Moravsky Sv. Jan (1922–2012). For evaluation of flows was used statistical software IHA (Indicators of Hydrological Alternations). Software will be meaningful only with long series of input data.

    KEY WORDS: Tisa River, Morava River, statistical analysis of discharges, IHA software

    Address:
    - Branislav Pramuk, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: pramuk@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




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Institute of Hydrology SAS
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Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh

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