Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 129 - 133, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Mária Babošová, Jaroslav Noskovič, Ľubomíra Kvetanová, Jana Porhajašová: Inputs monovalent base cations into the Soil by Rainfalls on research-experimental base of Slovak Agricultural University (SAU) Nitra – Dolná Malanta

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  • To the monovalent base cations that are found in the atmospheric precipitation are the cations of sodium and potassium ions. Their concentration in the precipitation water is different in the different locations. Sodium is usually found in the higher concentration than a potassium. Exceptions are throughall, where the concentration of potassium can by higher than the concentration of sodium. The aim of the paper is evaluate input of the monovalent cations (Na+, K+) precipitation to the soil (kg.ha-1) on an experimental base of SPU Nitra – Dolna Malanta.

    KEY WORDS: atmospheric precipitations, monovalent base cations – sodium and potassium

    Address:
    - Mária Babošová, Katedra environmentalistiky a zoológie Fakulta agrobiológie a potravinových zdrojov SPU v Nitre Tr. A. Hlinku 2 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 037 641 4490 Fax.: Email: Maria.Babosova@uniag.sk)
    - Jaroslav Noskovič, Katedra environmentalistiky a zoológie Fakulta agrobiológie a potravinových zdrojov SPU v Nitre Tr. A. Hlinku 2 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Ľubomíra Kvetanová, Katedra environmentalistiky a zoológie Fakulta agrobiológie a potravinových zdrojov SPU v Nitre Tr. A. Hlinku 2 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Jana Porhajašová, Katedra environmentalistiky a zoológie Fakulta agrobiológie a potravinových zdrojov SPU v Nitre Tr. A. Hlinku 2 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 134 - 143, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Jaroslav Noskovič, Ľubomíra Kvetanová, Mária Babošová, Jana Porhajašová: Evaluation of bivalent basic cations in the water course Caradice

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  • Calcium and magnesium are the dominant base cations of the natural waters. From the hygienic point of view their content in the surface water is not significant, but higher concentrations affect of the performance. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the concentrations of divalent cations base in water in the longitudinal profile of the water course Caradice brook for the period 2005 to 2010 . The water course springs in the mountains of Pohronský Inovec in the southern foot of the hill Drienka and is a right tributary of the river Hron. Water sampling was carried out from the center of the water flow at regular monthly intervals, at the end of the month. Sampling sites in the longitudinal profile of the watercourse are located so that to include all real sources of pollution. Impact factors year, month and sampling sites to the changes concentrations of the base cations were evaluated statistically in the SAS program. Inclusion of the water sampling sites was done by comparing of the value 90-th percentile of the indicator with the recommended value in the Government Regulation SR 296/2010 Collections of law.

    KEY WORDS: watercourse, basic cations, calcium, magnesium

    Address:
    - Jaroslav Noskovič, Katedra environmentalistiky a zoológie Fakulta agrobiológie a potravinových zdrojov Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre Tr. A. Hlinku 2 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: +421 037 641 4490 Fax.: Email: Jaroslav.Noskovic@uniag.sk)
    - Ľubomíra Kvetanová, Katedra environmentalistiky a zoológie Fakulta agrobiológie a potravinových zdrojov Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre Tr. A. Hlinku 2 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Mária Babošová, Katedra environmentalistiky a zoológie Fakulta agrobiológie a potravinových zdrojov Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre Tr. A. Hlinku 2 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Jana Porhajašová, Katedra environmentalistiky a zoológie Fakulta agrobiológie a potravinových zdrojov Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre Tr. A. Hlinku 2 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 144 - 150, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Renáta Dulovičová, Yvetta Velísková: Distribution of silts and some chemical indicators along channel Gabčíkovo –Topoľníky

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  • The article presents the current situation of silting up in one of the main channels of the Žitný ostrov channel network – the channel Gabčíkovo- Topoľníky. The rate of cross-section profiles aggradation along the channel was evaluated from the field measurements which were extended on determination of temperature, conductivity and pH along the channel. The results are presented by graph forms. The grade of aggradation along the channel G-T ranges from 4 to 44% of discharge area, the temperature ranges the values from 20 to 24°C (during the measurements), pH 7,2 till 8,7 and the conductivity oscillates between 28 – 368 mS.cm-1.

    KEY WORDS: silting up, channel network, cross-section profile, longitudinal profile, water temperature, conductivity, pH

    Address:
    - Renáta Dulovičová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 838 11 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: +4212 49268280 Fax.: Email: dulovicova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 838 11 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 151 - 157, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Emília Šebová: Interaction between surface water and groundwater at Žitný ostrov - current results and experience

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  • The study provides information of existing research results for the topic of interactions between groundwater and surface water in the Žitný ostrov. The water regime is also regulated by the system of open channels. This channel network has primarily drainage function - such as flood protection. Otherwise, in case of drought, it is a source of water for surface irrigation, as well as subsidies for groundwater. This strong interaction of groundwater and surface water affects the channel bed clogging processes. Paper is devoted to the channel network, the issue of clogging, hydraulic parameters, monitoring and modelling of groundwater regime.

    KEY WORDS: channel network, hydraulic parameter, interaction, groundwater modelling, channel-bed clogging

    Address:
    - Emília Šebová, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421249268259 Fax.: Email: sebova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 158 - 170, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Mária Pásztorová, Tomáš Laštík, Jana Skalová: Analysis of interactions between the groundwater table level and the affecting element

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  • Wetlands, the world's most important ecosystems providing the diversity of greater plant and animal species, have undergone many changes mainly due to drainage, cultivation and soil pollution in the past, as well as secondary succession. One of these significant changes is also the change in groundwater table level and water regime, which may result in the most pessimistic scenarios in the disappearance of wetlands and wetland communities. Therefore, wetlands are areas which currently receive the increased attention of humanity. One of these wetlands is also a National Nature Reserve (NNR) Abrod. Its territory is located in the lowland and intensive use part of Slovakia, so it was exposed to strong anthropogenic influence, which resulted in a decrease of groundwater table level in this area and then disappearance of fen communities, a movement in the composition and structure of habitats. Therefore we decided in this submitted work to analyze the dependence of the groundwater table level on the elements that most influence the changes in the levels (precipitation and water levels), because the position of groundwater table level have for a wetland particular importance.

    KEY WORDS: groundwater table level, precipitations, water levels, wetland

    Address:
    - Mária Pásztorová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 2 59274616 Fax.: Email: maria.pasztorova@stuba.sk)
    - Tomáš Laštík, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Jana Skalová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 171 - 176, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Maria Gusakova, Nina Gavrilova, Konstantin Bogolitsyn: Influence of activities of complex wood processing enterprises of the European North of Russia on the quality of surface water

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  • Assessment of influence of complex wood processing enterprises on the surface water quality, taking load of industrial effluents, is impossible without the natural background characteristics of water. Such characteristics reflect specific conditions of formation of the chemical composition of surface water without anthropogenic impact. The feature of the Northern rivers hydro chemical regime is a significant content of related high-molecular compounds such as humic acids, fulvic acid and water-soluble natural lignin. They determine the natural background characteristics of the rivers. For example, in spite of the river is not taken load of industrial effluents; it is polluted according to some indicators (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), lignin substances, volatile phenols, turpentine, tall oil).Consequently, the main objective of this paper is to show that it is necessary to know and take into account the large spatial and temporal variability of background concentrations of high-molecular compounds for reliable assessment of anthropogenic influence of pulp and paper production on water quality of the Northern Rivers. Monitoring of quality of surface water and biologically treated wastewater from one of the largest complex wood processing enterprise of the European North of Russia according to the priority integral indicators (COD and BOD5), was carried out during a few years. Being most descriptive COD and BOD5 have been chosen from the list of controlled indices for characterizing pollution of effluent of European P&P enterprises.

    KEY WORDS: chemical oxygen demand (COD), industrial effluents, monitoring, pollutants pulp and paper production (P&P), water quality

    Address:
    - Maria Gusakova, Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences; Severnoi Dviny 23 163000 Arkhangelsk Russia (Corresponding author. Tel.:+7 818 28 76 36 Fax.: Email: mariya_gusakova@mail.ru)
    - Nina Gavrilova, Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences; Severnoi Dviny 23 163000 Arkhangelsk Russia
    - Konstantin Bogolitsyn, Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences; Severnoi Dviny 23 163000 Arkhangelsk Russia

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 177 - 182, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Nikolay Larionov, Konstantin Bogolitsyn, Irina Kuznetsova: Environmental load, produced by Arkhangelsk city landfill, upon the natural waters

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  • Waste management is one of the most acute environmental problems in Russia, including North-Western part of the country. Arkhangelsk city that is the center of Arkhangelsk region also suffers from the lack of expertise in the field of waste management. One of the most acute problems for the city is the influence of existing landfill upon the environment. Present paper shows harsh environmental effects, produced by the leachate, coming from the solid domestic waste (SDW) landfill, towards the natural waters. It’s shown that a wide range of organic and non-organic pollutants are served together with the leachate to the natural waters as a result of the filtration of atmospheric precipitations through the body of the landfill. Surrounding SDW landfill territories are presented by the peat lands. According to the results of the study it’s concluded that migration of the elements is strongly affected by the thick peat layer, acting as a natural barrier, protecting the natural waters from contamination. It’s stated that environmental actions should be performed to avoid further pollution, as well as the ones to remediate the neighboring territories.

    KEY WORDS: Solid domestic waste, landfill, leachate, organic and non-organic pollutants, peat

    Address:
    - Nikolay Larionov, Institute of Ecological Problems of the North Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Severnoy Dvinu Emb. 23 Arkhangelsk Russia, 163000 (Corresponding author. Tel.: +7 8182 287688 (ext. 318) Fax.: +7 8182 287636 Email: nikolay.larionov@iepn.ru)
    - Konstantin Bogolitsyn, Institute of Ecological Problems of the North Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Severnoy Dvinu Emb. 23 Arkhangelsk Russia, 163000
    - Irina Kuznetsova, Institute of Ecological Problems of the North Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Severnoy Dvinu Emb. 23 Arkhangelsk Russia, 163000

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 183 - 191, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Sándor Nagy, György Verdó: Correlations of the global and local aspects of the antropogeneous effects on the water base of the lithosphere, protection of the layered soil

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  • The decrease in Earth's drinking water resources and the degradation of its quality has become a critical problem.Our planet's total water supply is estimated to be around 2 billion km3s. This is only 1% of Earth's own weight. Of this small amount only a tiny 3% is fresh water, of which 79% is forzen in glaciers and 1% is present as surface waters.The ratio of water stored in soil is around 20%. This is 0.2% of the total water supply. Our study aims to summarize the layered groundwater aquifer systems and its changes which are the results of anthropogenic effects in both global and hungarian respects and also for the region of Debrecen.In particular with regard to the geological and ecological level where irreversible processes take place. All this is discussed in the context of cause and effect. Pointing out the dangers of excessive deep groundwater extraction and the contamination caused by toxic substances that are the byproducts of modern life. In addition we discuss the Water Directive of the European Union which gives a policy for community action concerning the goal to achive the status of "in good condition" for our waters till 2015.

    KEY WORDS: water base, water resources, environment protection, potentiometric level

    Address:
    - Sándor Nagy, Polgarmesteri Hivatal 4024 Debrecen Piac u. 20., Hungary (Corresponding author. Tel.:0036204400444 Fax.: Email: nagy.sandor@debrecen.hu)
    - György Verdó, HAHUSZO 4080 Hajdunanas Fürdő u. 1., Hungary

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 192 - 200, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Štefan Rehák: The drought impact in agricultural landscape on sandy and loam-sandy soils and the projection of adaptation proceeding.

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  • Crops in agro ecosystems on sandy, sandy-loam and loam-sandy soils are very sensitive to changes of water content in the aeration zone. They react to decrease of water content by decrease of yields and harming of agrobiodiversity. Generally, from the physiological point of view, the drought occurs in case of lack of precipitation and high evapotranspiration. Drought as a natural phenomena is with its consequences allotted into natural disasters which influence natural ecosystems, as well as agroecosystems, and thus the biodiversity itself. The biodiversity depends on water contents in the soil aeration zone. If the dry period is prolonged and the supply of available water approaches the wilting point, the plants react by harming the ratio of photosynthesis and respiration, decrease of formation of new organic matter, decrease of turgor, wilting and even dying. However, drought impacts depend on plant, variety, stage of growth, etc. In order to decrease the drought impact in agricultural landscape. In agroecosystems intentionally managed by humans, the water content in the soil aeration zone plays a significant role. The water content significantly affects the stability of agroecosystem and agrobiodiversity. This stability is significantly damaged under condition of drought start. In order to decrease the drought impact in agricultural landscape, it is necessary to adopt combined approach based on identification of drought, evaluation of its spatial occurrence, intensity and duration, and then opitimisation of landscape structure with the help of proper biological and water management activities.

    KEY WORDS: agrobiodiversity, hydrophysical soil properties, biodiversitye

    Address:
    - Štefan Rehák, Výskumný ústav vodného hospodárstva Nábr.arm.gen.L.Svobodu 5 812 49 Bratislava Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: rehak@vuvh.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 201 - 208, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Dana Kotorová, Jana Jakubová: Expected development of loamy soil properties by its intensive cultivation

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  • The aim of this contribution was to show development trends of selected physical properties of loamy soils of the East Slovak Lowland. Conventional tillage practise were observed. Field observations were realized during years 1981 – 2005 in Vysoká nad Uhom, where middle heavy loamy Eutric Fluvisol is localized. Soil samples for determination of bulk density, total porosity and maximum capillary capacity were taken in spring time from topsoil in depth 0.0 – 0.3 m. Development of soil properties was valued by trend analyse by method of linear regression. During 25-years bulk density was increased about 169.6 kg m-3. At the same time total porosity was decreased about 6.27 % and maximum capillary capacity about 4.92 %. Trend lines of observed soil parameters had linear course, which in definite time had marked increasing or decreasing trend. Trend development soil parameters prediction to year 2020 indicates increasing of bulk density and decreasing of total porosity and maximum capillary capacity.

    KEY WORDS: time series, trend analyse, loamy soil, physical soil properties, development prediction of soil properties

    Address:
    - Dana Kotorová, CVRV – Výskumný ústav agroekológie Špitálska 1273 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: kotorova@minet.sk)
    - Jana Jakubová, CVRV – Výskumný ústav agroekológie Špitálska 1273 071 01 Michalovce, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 209 - 219, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Martina Vlčková, Pavel Kovaříček, Veronika Matoušková, Marcela Vlášková, Zbyněk Kulhavý, Pavel Pražák, Václav Kadlec: Monitoring of soil hydrophysical characteristics before and after application of compost and crop residues.

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  • Water retention capacity and infiltration of the soil are important characteristics to maintain the sustainable development of the country. Plenty of water in the soil provides good conditions for growing plants, infiltration ability is important for the reduction of surface runoff, including its negative impacts such as soil erosion and flooding in the floodplains of rivers. Above-mentioned hydrophysical soil properties are affected by, inter alia, the content of organic matter. There was observed saturated hydraulic conductivity (hereinafter referred to as Ksat) at four locations in CR (Červený Újezd, Libichov, Náměšť nad Oslavou and Ruzyně). At Červený Újezd and Libichov there was also observed retention capacity of soil before and after different doses of compost or organic matter from harvest residues. To determine the effect of compost on soil properties, the data before and after application of compost were compared, particularly with regard to the different doses of compost. Assessed data from the soil horizon from 0.05 to 0.15 m show increases Ksat after incorporation of organic matter. Trends in retention curves are no longer so clear.

    KEY WORDS: compost, soil hydraulic properties, saturated hydraulic conductivity, retention curve

    Address:
    - Martina Vlčková, Výzkumný ústav meliorací a ochrany půdy, v.v.i. Žabovřeská 250 156 27 Praha 5, Česká republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420 257027231 Fax.: +420 257921246 Email: vlckova.martina@vumop.cz)
    - Pavel Kovaříček, Výzkumný ústav zemědělské techniky v.v.i. Drnovská 507 161 01 Praha 6, Česká republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420 233022236 Fax.: +420 233312507 Email: pavel.kovaricek@vuzt.cz)
    - Veronika Matoušková, - Marcela Vlášková, - Zbyněk Kulhavý, - Pavel Pražák, - Václav Kadlec

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 220 - 228, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Zuzana Drongová, Henryk Czachor, Ľubomír Kováčik, Ľubomír Lichner: The impact of algae on hydrophysical parameters of sandy soil

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  • The objective of this study was to assess an impact of algae on the persistence of water repellency, sorptivity, and hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil at a pine-forest glade at the locality Mláky II near Sekule (southwest Slovakia). The coccal alga Choricystis minor from division Chlorophyta, and filamentous algae Klebsormidium subtile from division Charophyta and Tribonema minus from division Stramenopila were isolated from the top layer of this soil. The monoalgal and bialgal (Ch. minor + K. subtile) crusts were grown in laboratory conditions on the sterilized pure sand (collected in the glade site at the depth of 50 cm) for 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 days. Hydrophysical parameters of the crusted sand were estimated at the end of each selected growth stage after drying at 50°C for 15 hours (simulation of three days lasting hot and dry spell). The growth of algal crust, characterized by an increase in organic carbon content from 0.16% to 0.33%, resulted in an increase in water drop penetration time (parameter of the persistence of water repellency) and a drop in sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity for all the dried crusts. The water repellency cessation time increased with an increase in both the water drop penetration time of the crust and the thickness of the water repellent layer.

    KEY WORDS: algae; biological soil crust; sandy soil; water repellency; sorptivity; hydraulic conductivity

    Address:
    - Zuzana Drongová, Katedra botaniky Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave Révová 39 SK-811 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:02-54411541 Fax.: Email: drongova@fns.uniba.sk)
    - Henryk Czachor, Ústav agrofyziky PAV Doswiadczalna 4 PL-02 290 Lublin 27, Poland (Corresponding author. Tel.:(0-81) 7445061 voľba 143 Fax.: Email: hczachor@demeter.ipan.lublin.pl)
    - Ľubomír Kováčik, Katedra botaniky Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave Révová 39 SK-811 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: 02-54411541 Fax.: Email: kovacik@fns.uniba.sk)
    - Ľubomír Lichner, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:02-49268227 Fax.: 02-44259404 Email: lichner@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 229 - 242, doi:
Scientific Paper, Czech

Jana Pařílková, Marie Fejfarová, Zbyněk Zachoval, Ivo Pavlík: Monitoring of soil moisture changes using EIS

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  • One of the basic quantities characterizing the soil is moisture, which is determined by different methods and procedures. The method of electrical impedance spectrometry (EIS) is indirect electrical measuring method. It was successfully applied in the monitoring of some physical processes occurring in soils and rocks as a result of water loads. Information about ongoing changes, it is usually made on a form of maps or impedance resp. conductivity. The method is examined in the context of realized measurement apparatus consisting of a Z-meter device, measuring probes and a special user software. The paper presents examples of results achieved in solving the optimization of irrigation to the golf course in Svratka.

    KEY WORDS: electrical impedance spectrometry, conductivity, Z-meter device, soil moisture, drought, irrigation, monitoring

    Address:
    - Jana Pařílková, Vysoké učení technické v Brně Fakulta stavební Ústav vodních staveb, Laboratoř vodohospodářského výzkumu Veveří 95 602 00 Brno Česká republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+420 54114 7284 Fax.: Email: parilkova.j@fce.vutbr.cz)
    - Marie Fejfarová, Vysoké učení technické v Brně Fakulta stavební Ústav vodních staveb, Laboratoř vodohospodářského výzkumu Veveří 95 602 00 Brno Česká republika
    - Zbyněk Zachoval, Vysoké učení technické v Brně Fakulta stavební Ústav vodních staveb, Laboratoř vodohospodářského výzkumu Veveří 95 602 00 Brno Česká republika
    - Ivo Pavlík, GEOtest, a.s. Šmahova 1244/112 627 00 Brno Česká republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 243 - 250, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Július Šútor, Peter Šurda, Vlasta Štekauerová: Quantification of capillary water inflow from groundwater table into the aeration zone of the soil

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  • During the time periods without precipitation the soil water content dynamics in lowland territories is affected only by actual evapotranspiration (Eta) and by capillary water inflow (Ik) from groundwater table (GWT). The existence of hydraulic contact between aeration zone of the soil and groundwater table is an essential condition for water inflow from GWT. Real values of soil water content (Wp) can be obtained by direct monitoring. Actual decline of soil water content ?Wp during time period without precipitation, i.e. between two rainfall events, can be then compared with the volume of water, expended on Eta. If Eta=?Wp, consumption of water by the evapotranspiration process is not compensated by capillary water inflow from GWT. When Eta>?Wp, then distinction Eta–?Wp represents Ik, i.e. value of water inflow from GWT. In this study is presented the estimation method of capillary water inflow (Ik) from GWT into the aeration zone of the soil during the time periods without precipitation. Data from soil moisture monitoring on 2 localities of Zitny Ostrov area were used. Selected localities Kalinkovska horaren and Kralovska luka represent agricultural ecosystem and ecosystem of Danubian riparian forest. This data was completed by set of values of actual evapotranspiration Eta, obtained by numerical simulation on hydrological model HYDRUS-ET.

    KEY WORDS: capillary water inflow, soil water storage, soil moisture monitoring

    Address:
    - Július Šútor, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 44259383 Fax.: +4212 44259404 Email: sutor@uh.savba.sk)
    - Peter Šurda, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Vlasta Štekauerová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 251 - 258, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Michal Dóša, Ladislav Holko, Zdeněk Kostka, Mária Martincová: Hydraulic conductivity of the soil surface and maximum rainfall intensities in foothill part of Jalovecký creek catchment

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  • We measured hydraulic condictivity of soils (kf) in the foothill part of the Jalovecký creek catchment at 22 sites using the minidisk permeameter and suction –2 cm. Seven measurements of kf were conducted at each site (area about 1 m2). Geophysical measurements (electromagnetic conductivity) were performed at each site to assess the homogeneity of soil conditions at two effective depths of 35 and 70 cm. The sites were selected according to gemorphological and geological properties. They covered soils developed at deluvial sediments, glaciofluvial sediments, river terraces and flysh. The results showed a rather high variability of kf between different regions, within regions and also at individual sites. Just values measured on clay loams exhibited relatively smaller variability. Maximum 10-minutes and hourly rainfall intensities were analysed at two stations. Comaprison of rainfall intensisties with hydraulic conductivities of soils confirmed that conditions for generation of Hortonian overland flow are met only rarely and at just a few sites.

    KEY WORDS: hydraulic conductivity, rainfall intensity, soil

    Address:
    - Michal Dóša, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa Ondrašovecká 16 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421445522522 Fax.: Email: dosa@uh.savba.sk)
    - Ladislav Holko, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa Ondrašovecká 16 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Zdeněk Kostka, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa Ondrašovecká 16 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Mária Martincová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa Ondrašovecká 16 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 259 - 266, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Ladislav Holko, Michal Danko, Zdeněk Kostka, Michal Dóša, Mária Martincová: Electromagnetic conductivity of soils in the Jalovecký creek catchment

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  • The article provides information on spatial and temporal variability of soil electromagnetic conductivity in the mountian catchment of the Jalovecký creek. The measurements were performed with two probes having depth ranges 70 (35 cm) and 150 (75 cm). Mean values of electromagnetic conductivity at 22 sites in the foothill part of the catchment representing dry soil conditions did not indicate a relationship with soil type. Temporal variability of electromagnetic conductivity measured at two sites between end of July and end of September 2011 confirmed the correlation with soil moisture.

    KEY WORDS: soil electromagnetic conductivity, soil types, soil moisture, mountain catchment

    Address:
    - Ladislav Holko, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa Ondrašovská 16 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421445522522 Fax.: Email: holko@uh.savba.sk)
    - Michal Danko, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa Ondrašovská 16 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Zdeněk Kostka, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa Ondrašovská 16 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Michal Dóša, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa Ondrašovská 16 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Mária Martincová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa Ondrašovská 16 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 267 - 275, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Pavol Miklánek, Mária Martincová, Pavla Pekárová, Ivan Mészároš: Soil temperature on the MS of the IH SAS at Považská Bystrica

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  • In 1961 were in experimental microbasins of the Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences (IH SAS) in Kunovec (district Považská Bystrica), established meteorological stations. In these, except other meteorological elements, also the soil temperature was measured three times a day, at the seven soil depths (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and 100 cm). Soil conditions are one of the factors influencing also the groundwater temperature. Because in our point of interest is the surface water temperature, we have also studied the soil temperature development. In this contribution we present the processed soil temperatures, measured at the meteorological stations Rybárik and Kunovec during the period 1967–1981. These are compared with the mean annual air temperature development in these stations.

    KEY WORDS: soil temperature, historical measurement

    Address:
    - Pavol Miklánek, ÚH SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: miklanek@uh.savba.sk)
    - Mária Martincová, ÚH SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Pavla Pekárová, ÚH SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ivan Mészároš, ÚH SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 276 - 285, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Mária Martincová, Pavla Pekárová, Peter Škoda, Ján Pekár: Long-term trends in water temperature in the Slovak rivers and the impact of climatic and orographic factors

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  • In the paper we analyze multi-annual variability and long-term trends in water temperature (using historical records of water temperature covering 40-years of the 1964–2003 period). We worked with statistical processing of long-term trend of water temperature in selected Slovak rivers. In the analysis were used the measured daily water temperature values (measurements at 7 a.m.) and air temperature, sites - Morava, Nitra, Torysa, Hron, Vah, Bela. Long-term trend and monthly variability of measured mean and maximum water temperature in individual months were evaluated in first part. The second part analyzed relationship between water and air temperature, and relationship between water temperature and altitude – temperature gradient. In the third part, we analyzed the occurrence probability of the maximum monthly water temperature in selected rivers.

    KEY WORDS: water temperature, long-term trend, temperature gradient

    Address:
    - Mária Martincová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:004212 44259311 Fax.: 004212 44259311 Email: martincova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Peter Škoda, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Jeséniova 17 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Pekár, Katedra aplikovanej matematiky a štatistiky Fakulta matematiky, fyziky a informatiky UK Mlynská dolina 842 48 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 286 - 295, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Dana Halmová, Pavla Pekárová, Ivan Mészároš: Low flow change ananlysis in selected gauging stations on the Danube River

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  • This paper is focused on the low flow change analysis in the measured daily flow data series. There is a strong need to have complete and exhausting information on the water regime of the Danube River in order to be able to generalize such information on the basis of long-term observations from the whole Danube territory. We use the database of the mean daily discharge of the Danube River. The first part of the paper describes the IHA (Indicators of Hydrological Alternations) software evaluating changes in the number of small, medium and large floods as well as of low flows and extreme low flows. The IHA statistics will be meaningful only when calculated for a sufficiently long hydrologic record. In the case of an abrupt change in the river basin, such as construction of dam or climate change, the IHA statistics can be used for identifying the flow change between two time periods, that before and after the impact. Nine gauging stations from the database of mean daily discharges on the Danube River were chosen for the analysis of low flow changes. The changes of daily flows during the time period of hydrological years on the Danube River at selected gauging stations are presented in the second part of the paper.

    KEY WORDS: Danube River basin, low flow changes, hydrological drought, IHA software

    Address:
    - Dana Halmová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:00421244259311 Fax.: 00421244259311 Email: halmova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ivan Mészároš, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 296 - 303, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Veronika Bačová Mitková: A different approaches to estimate the volume of the flood waves in river Bodrog

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  • One-dimensional analyses of flood characteristics are now mainly used in studies of hydrological extreme events. It means that the peak discharge of flood wave or volume of flood wave is statistically analyzed separately. Hydrological phenomena are often multidimensional and hence they require the joint modeling of several random variables. Therefore, for more comprehensive analysis of the flood wave it is necessary to know and understand relationship and dependence between the characteristics of the flood wave, what requires a multidimensional statistical approach. The aim of this paper is to analyze different approaches to estimate the volume of the flood waves. In our work we focus on the use of copula method and standard method to estimate of the flood volume in rover Bodrog (gaug. station Streda nad Bodrogom). To determine the volume of the flood wave the daily discharges we used as background material from years 1950-2009.

    KEY WORDS: volume of the flood wave, multivariate statistic, statistical distribution, Bodrog river

    Address:
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:00421244259311 Fax.: 00421244259311 Email: mitkova@uh.savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 304 - 311, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Radomil Květon, Andrej Šoltész, Dana Baroková: Mathematical modelling of flood protection on the Ondava River

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  • The goal of contribution is the evaluation of water level and discharge regime on the Ondava River for recent state of the river bed as well as the proposal of measures for flood protection solution on the Ondava River. Modelling calculations procedures have been provided by means of the HEC-RAS modelling software for steady non-uniform open channel flow completed by water outflow through lateral spillway situated in the protection dam of the river.

    KEY WORDS: mathematical modelling, flood protection, lateral spillway, Ondava River

    Address:
    - Radomil Květon, Katedra hydrotechniky Stavebná fakulta STU Bratislava Radlinského 11, Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 59 274 619 Fax.: Email: radomil.kveton@stuba.sk)
    - Andrej Šoltész, Katedra hydrotechniky Stavebná fakulta STU Bratislava Radlinského 11, Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Dana Baroková, Katedra hydrotechniky Stavebná fakulta STU Bratislava Radlinského 11, Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 312 - 321, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Katarína Cipovová, Andrej Šoltész, Radomil Květon: The failure wave from Liptovská Mara water scheme (Modeling and evaluation of demolition effect)

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  • Following the Directive of The Ministry of Environment No.1/2007 – 1.5., the aim of this paper is to present the project of calculation the failure wave from Liptovská Mara water scheme and to emphasize the difference between 1D and 2D modeling of such a flood wave. This project also contains demolition effects evaluation.

    KEY WORDS: Failure wave, extreme flood, risk analysis, 2D model, demolition effects evaluation

    Address:
    - Katarína Cipovová, Katedra hydrotechniky Stavebná fakulta STU Bratislava Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: katarina.cipovova@stuba.sk)
    - Andrej Šoltész, Katedra hydrotechniky Stavebná fakulta STU Bratislava Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Radomil Květon, Katedra hydrotechniky Stavebná fakulta STU Bratislava Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 322 - 331, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Danka Grambličková, Emília Bednárová, Marián Minárik, Otakar Hrabovský: Optimisation of remediation measures on flood protection dykes of river Torysa and Latorica

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  • Extensive, repeating floods at the present time caused wide ecological and also economic losses in national economy. Even bigger threat is endanger of human life. In order to avoid negative consequences it is important to assess the safety of built dykes and eventually design their remediation measures. Flood protection dykes fulfil their important function only if they are able to resist extreme hydrodynamic loading during flood. This requires reliable forecasts of the filtration velocities, gradients, uplifts and seepages in the embankment and its surroundings. Finite element method (FEM) belongs to established methods for reviewing the safety of the flood dykes. In case of occurrence of flood discharges the transient filtration flow tasks are solved. Their complexity is indisputable, complicated by casualness of flood volume and occurrence, but also uncertainty of material parameters characterising seepage environment. This paper is concentrated on analyses of flood dykes of rivers Torysa and Latorica by using FEM, where in the past occurred concomitant circumstances, signalling threaten of their safety and possible flooding of surrounding.

    KEY WORDS: flood protection dyke, filtration flow, filtration stability, uplift on overburden, remediation measures, finite element method

    Address:
    - Danka Grambličková, Katedra geotechniky, SvF STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:00421259274670 Fax.: Email: danka.gramblickova@stuba.sk)
    - Emília Bednárová, Katedra geotechniky, SvF STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Marián Minárik, Katedra geotechniky, SvF STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Otakar Hrabovský, SVP š.p., OZ Košice Ďumbierska 14 041059 Košice, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 332 - 339, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Martina Zeleňáková, Lenka Gaňová, Žofia Kuzevičová: Use of geographical information systems and multicriteria analysis for assessing flood risk areas

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  • Flood disasters have a very special place in the field of natural hazards. They are the most costly natural hazards in the world and make up high percent of economic losses in the countries. The analyses of flood vulnerable areas are often employing multicriterial analysis and geographic information systems. Multicriterial analysis is also used in this paper for the purpose of assessing the risk of floods in the eastern Slovakia specifically in Bodrog and Hornád basins. Results of these assessment methods are presented by the ArcGIS software. The aim of integration multicriteria analysis with geographical information systems is to provide flexible and accurate decisions in order to mitigate floods. Aim of this paper is to create a map showing areas with potential flood risk in an environment of ArcGIS 9.3, based on factors affecting the formation of flooding.

    KEY WORDS: flood risk, geographical information system, multicriteria analysis, causal factors

    Address:
    - Martina Zeleňáková, Technická univerzita v Košiciach, Stavebná fakulta Ústav environmentálneho inžinierstva Vysokoškolská 4 042 00 Košice, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:00421556024270 Fax.: 00421556024331 Email: martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk)
    - Lenka Gaňová, Technická univerzita v Košiciach, Stavebná fakulta Ústav environmentálneho inžinierstva Vysokoškolská 4 042 00 Košice, Slovenská republika
    - Žofia Kuzevičová, Technická univerzita v Košiciach, Fakulta baníctva, ekológie, riadenia a geotechnológií Ústav geodézie, kartografie a geografických informačných systémov Park Komenského 19 042 00 Košice, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:00421556022916 Fax.: Email: zofia.kuzevicova@tuke.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 340 - 348, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Michal Danko, Kamila Hlavčová, Silvia Kohnová, Ján Szolgay: Modelling design flood waves in small ungauged basins using GIS

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  • In the paper a GIS based approach for simulating design discharges and flood waves in small ungauged catchments is presented. The methodology proposed is taking account spatial variability of physical and geographical catchment’s properties and formation of runoff on the basin. The flood wave is simulated from the design precipitation with the duration equals to time of concentration. For determining effective precipitation the CN curves are applied. Time of concentration is calculated in GIS on the base of spatially distributed flow trajectories and velocities on the basin; the flood wave is calculated using the methodology of time area hydrogram. The value of maximum discharge of the simulated design flood wave with the return period of 100 years for a selected basin is compared with values achieved by statistical and regional methods.

    KEY WORDS: design flood waves, GIS, time of concentration, method of CN curves

    Address:
    - Michal Danko, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+4212 592 74 498 Fax.: Email: michal.danko@stuba.sk)
    - Kamila Hlavčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Silvia Kohnová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Szolgay, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 349 - 359, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Katarína Jeneiová, Silvia Kohnová, Kamila Hlavčová: The modelling of extreme runoff in winter season in the Vistucky stream catchment

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  • The knowledge of processes, which lead to the occurrence of floods, is important for development of flood protection system. The article is focused on the simulation of extreme runoff situations in chosen time period in the Vištucký stream catchment near the Modra town. To achieve the targets a conceptual semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model of the HBV type was used. Two methods for calculating of evapotranspiration were compared. The successful calibration for the winter peak flow was performed. Simulations of theoretical discharge situations in this time period were performed. The impact of extreme winter flow lies in its duration and therefore in the increase of volume caused by snow melt

    KEY WORDS: modelling, extreme peak flow, peak flow scenarios

    Address:
    - Katarína Jeneiová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: katarina.jeneiova@stuba.sk)
    - Silvia Kohnová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Kamila Hlavčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 360 - 367, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Peter Valent, Jana Daneková, Carlo Riverso: Uncertainties in the HBV model calibration

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  • Rainfall-runoff models found a wide application in all sections of water management providing water managers a simple tool to solve various problems such as management of water systems, flood risk management, impact of climate change on water regime of a country and many others. However, the use of rainfall-runoff models comes with a few problems predominantly linked with vast simplification of otherwise complex system of runoff creation, quality of input data or with the model calibration and finding the optimal set of parameters. In this study we have focused on calibration problems of lumped HBV model. The main objective of this study was to make a multiple calibration of a HBV model and to analyse the sensitivity and variance of the values of the calibrated parameters, as well as the ability of the optimisation algorithm to repeatedly obtain the same parameters starting with various initial conditions.

    KEY WORDS: HBV model, equifinality, model calibration, genetic algorithm

    Address:
    - Peter Valent, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: peter_valent@stuba.sk)
    - Jana Daneková, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Carlo Riverso, Faculty of Environmental and Territory Engineering University of Bologna Via Terraccini 28 Bologna, Italy (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: carlo.riverso87@gmail.com)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 368 - 376, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Peter Spál, Michaela Danáčová, Ján Szolgay, Kamila Hlavčová: The estimation of direct runoff using the curve number method (SCS CN) in the Vištucký Creek catchment

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  • In the article the curve number method (SCS CN) is tested for estimation of runoff from small river basins in our conditions. The curve number method is an empirical method for predicting direct runoff from rainfall excess and it is used in many rainfall-runoff and erosion models. The basic input to the method is rainfall depth which is transformed to the depth of direct runoff using runoff curve numbers. The sensitivity of runoff curve numbers on antecedent moisture conditions was examined. The empirical data was also used to define the impact of the ? constant in the SCS CN method, which is determining the size of the initial rainfall loss, on the depth of direct runoff.

    KEY WORDS: precipitation, runoff, curve number method

    Address:
    - Peter Spál, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiy Stavebná fakulta STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+ 421 2 59274 498 Fax.: + 421 2 52923 575 Email: peter.spal@stuba.sk)
    - Michaela Danáčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiy Stavebná fakulta STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Szolgay, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiy Stavebná fakulta STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Kamila Hlavčová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiy Stavebná fakulta STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 377 - 384, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Márta Bara, Silvia Kohnová: Analysis of design values of short-term rainfall intensities in the Hron River basin

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  • This contribution deals with the scaling properties and design values of short-term rainfall in the Hron River basin. The possibility of using the simple scaling method for estimation of design rainfall intensities in selected stations was tested. The scaling exponents were assessed for selected sites and the design values of maximum rainfall intensities were evaluated by the simple scaling method. For the verification of the results the design values assessed by simple scaling were compared to historical data. Furthermore, the sensibility of the downscaled intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves on the variance of scaling exponents was tested: it was examined that how the downscaled design values of rainfall changed by changing the scaling exponents. Subsequently the scaling exponents were artificially reduced or increased, respectively. The design values evaluated by the initial scaling exponents and by the altered scaling exponents were compared to each other.

    KEY WORDS: design intensities of rainfall, simple scaling method

    Address:
    - Márta Bara, Ústav hydrológie Slovenská akadémia vied Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 2 44 259 280 Fax.: +421 2 44 259 404 Email: bara@uh.savba.sk)
    - Silvia Kohnová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta, STU Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava 1, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 2 59 274 623 Fax.: +421 2 52 923 575 Email: silvia.kohnova@stuba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 385 - 395, doi:
Scientific Paper, Czech

Bronislava Mužíková, Filip Chuchma, Tereza Kniezková, Miloslava Náplavová, Hana Středová: Precipitation extremity in lowland regions in the Czech republic and its possible future development

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  • Floods, drought and erosion are considered negative phenomena. Precipitation extremity belongs to the main factors that influence the occurrence of these phenomena. Precipitation extremity belongs to the factors, which influence negative processes such as floods or erosion. For chosen localities (grid points in lowland regions near the settlements Valtice, Žarošice and Částkov) in Moravia region in the Czech Republic we evaluated monthly precipitation sum and average for the period 1961-1990. On the base of these values we compared concrete months with the average value and classified it into certain groups. With a help of a model we tried to outline possible development of monthly precipitation sums for periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. To simulate future development the emission scenario A1B was used. The number of extremely subnormal monthly precipitation sums seems to have upward trend. There is also downward trend of normal months, so the number of extreme monthly precipitation might be increasing.

    KEY WORDS: precipitation, extremity, Moravia, emission scenario

    Address:
    - Bronislava Mužíková, Ústav aplikované a krajinné ekologie Mendelova univerzita v Brně, Zemědělská 1, Brno 613 00, budova Q Česká republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: bronislava.muzikova@mendelu.cz)
    - Filip Chuchma, Český hydrometeorologický ústav - pobočka Brno, Kroftova 43, 616 67 Brno, Česká republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: chuchma@chmi.cz)
    - Tereza Kniezková, - Miloslava Náplavová, - Hana Středová

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 396 - 403, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Eva Čepčeková, Helena Hlavatá: The East Slovak lowland in 2010: the year of extreme precipitation

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  • In presented paper we deal with analysis of precipitation totals in 2010 in the East Slovakian Lowland (ESL), in climatologic stations: Michalovce, Milhostov, Orechová, Somotor a Vysoká nad Uhom. From the long-term precipitation point of view May 2010 was unprecedently record-breaking in evaluated stations except station Orechová. In Milhostov, Somotor, and Vysoká nad Uhom it rained three times more rainfall than normal. In May and in early June caused mostly by cyclonic weather situation regions in Slovakia have been stricken by extensive rainfalls, which hit repeatedly in catchments and had been sufficiently water-saturated by previous precipitation events in April 2010, autumn 2009 and winter 2009/2010. Subsequent floods have been conditioned not only the lack of water management activities, but especially prolonged extensive rainfalls.

    KEY WORDS: extensive rainfalls, precipitation totals, floods

    Address:
    - Eva Čepčeková, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Regionálne stredisko Košice Odbor Meteorologická služba Ďumbierska 26 041 17 Košice, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: eva.cepcekova@shmu.sk)
    - Helena Hlavatá, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Regionálne stredisko Košice Odbor Meteorologická služba Ďumbierska 26 041 17 Košice, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 404 - 411, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Lucia Maderková, Jaroslav Antal, Ján Čimo: Determination of the rain factor R for the meteorological stations Hurbanovo and Gabčíkovo

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  • The aim of this paper is to calculate and compare the values of the rain factor R for the two selected meteorological stations Hurbanovo (1970 -2008) and Gabčíkovo (1967 - 2008), which represent the Danubian lowland. The source data were provided by the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute in Bratislava in digital form. The calculation is based on a methodology which was established by Wischmeier and Smith (1978). This methodology consider the rain events higher than 12.5 mm with an intensity in one rain section higher than 24.0 mm.h-1. Calculated values for rain factor R on mentioned locations for the monitored period were compared with the publication of Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute (SSCRI) and Methodology for inputting of research results into agricultural practice (1992), which use the results of A. Mališek. Our calculated values are several times higher. This difference may be caused by different numbers of monitored years, or by different methods of processing.

    KEY WORDS: R-factor, rain erosion, theoretical line of exceed of rain factor

    Address:
    - Lucia Maderková, Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Katedra biometeorológie a hydrológie Hospodárska 7 949 06 Nitra, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: lucia.maderkova@uniag.sk)
    - Jaroslav Antal, Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Katedra biometeorológie a hydrológie Hospodárska 7 949 06 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Ján Čimo, Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Katedra biometeorológie a hydrológie Hospodárska 7 949 06 Nitra, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 412 - 419, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Peter Halaj, Viliam Bárek, Ľuboš Jurík, Helena Horníková, Zoltán Šinka, Katarína Pecháčová, Jozef Gabčo: Design of numerical model for optimization of pumping station’s operational regime in drainage canal systems of the Eastern Slovak Lowland

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  • Drainage channel systems of lowlands regions are equipped by controllable regulating elements (pumping stations, sluice gates) in order to fulfill their function. Controllable regulating elements support the runoff of drainage waters into the recipient as well as increase the effectiveness of water management system in the territory. The design of drainage structures and their operational schedules were based on the simplified theory of steady flow and the assumption of the regular maintenance of channels, but the operational staff’s and researcher’s experiences refer to the low effectiveness of system operation due to insufficient longitudinal slope of channels and the high value of channel roughness as well as the schematized operational regime design. The aim of the article is to design of numerical model of 1D unsteady flow for improvement of pumping station’s operational regime in the drainage canal system. The model is based on Saint-Venant equations which are solved by means of the implicit Preissmann scheme and was verified by laboratory experiments on physical hydraulic model. By numerical model optimized operating regime especially at higher hydraulic roughness of channel reduces a number of manipulations with pumps and extends their operation time.

    KEY WORDS: pumping station, drainage canal, unsteady flow, optimization of operational regime

    Address:
    - Peter Halaj, Katedra Krajinného inžinierstva Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Hospodárska 7 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: peter.halaj@uniag.sk)
    - Viliam Bárek, Katedra Krajinného inžinierstva Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Hospodárska 7 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Ľuboš Jurík, Katedra Krajinného inžinierstva Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Hospodárska 7 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Helena Horníková, Katedra Krajinného inžinierstva Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Hospodárska 7 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Zoltán Šinka, Katedra Krajinného inžinierstva Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Hospodárska 7 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Katarína Pecháčová, Katedra Krajinného inžinierstva Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Hospodárska 7 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Jozef Gabčo, Katedra Krajinného inžinierstva Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Hospodárska 7 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 420 - 429, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Katarína Melová, Alena Štihová: Impact of the water reservoir Kunov on hydrologic regime of the Teplica River

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  • In this topic we analyzed the impacts of the water reservoir Kunov on hydrologic regime of the Teplica River. Evaluated are the average daily water levels, the average monthly and daily discharges. The water levels and discharges are comparing in two water gauging stations. Water gauging station Sobotište is located above the water reservoir Kunov, and water gauging stations Kunov is located below the reservoir. Shortly we also mentioned the characteristics of the water reservoir and the reasons leading to the construction of water reservoir.

    KEY WORDS: water reservoir Kunov; influence on hydrologic regime

    Address:
    - Katarína Melová, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Jeséniova 17 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: katarina.melova@shmu.sk)
    - Alena Štihová, Prírodovedecká fakulta UK Mlynská dolina 842 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: stihova.alena@gmail.com)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2011, p. 430 - 441, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Monika Jalčovíková, Viliam Macura, Marcela Škrovinová, Ivan Stankoci, Jana Kráľová: Determination of the impact of the depth and velocity parameters on the quality of the aquatic habitat

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  • The article is focused on the objectivization of the aquatic habitat assessment of the mountain and piedmont streams by Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). Habitat quality is specified on the basis of bioindication, which is represented by ichthyofauna in habitat suitability curves. The evaluation was verified on the 20 streams in rivers catchment of the Poprad, Bodrog and Hornád in Eastern Slovakia. The generalization of the suitability curves and a discharge impact on the shape of the suitability curves. The evaluation was verified on the 20 streams of river catchments of the Poprad, Bodrog and Hornád rivers that are situated in Eastern Slovakia. From the results it can be assumed, that during the minimum flows fish prefers shelters with maximum water depths. With moderate increase of the flow fish still stay at the same shelter. This is the reason why depth increases with increasing the flow. This trend was confirmed by ichthyological survey performed by three different water levels on the Drietomica stream in the all 14 target microhabitats. From the initiate outcomes follows, that suitability curve should be derived for the minimum flows and the maximum suitability range stay sustentative till the discharge, when a fish is forced to move to find another hiding place in consequence of higher discharge. Following study was focused on the factual parameters weight evaluation.

    KEY WORDS: habitat quality, IFIM, RHABSIM model, weighted usable area (WUA)

    Address:
    - Monika Jalčovíková, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: monika.jalcovikova@stuba.sk)
    - Viliam Macura, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Marcela Škrovinová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Ivan Stankoci, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Jana Kráľová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave Radlinského 11 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




AHS Editorial Office
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah
email: Yvetta.Veliskova@savba.sk

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh

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