Online Volumes of the Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics


J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 72, No. 3 - Early View, 2024, p. 1 - 10, doi: 10.2478/johh-2024-0012
Scientific Paper, English

Luwen Zhuang, Fernanda O. Hoerlle, Hao Chen, Elizabeth M. Pontedeiro, Martinus Th. van Genuchten, Paulo Couto, Chao-Zhong Qin, Kairong Lin: Analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of rocks using multiple laboratory methods

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  • Proper characterization of the unsaturated hydraulic properties in rocks is significant for predicting fluid flow in soil, hydrogeologic, and petroleum science and engineering problems. In this study, we contributed rigorous analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of three reservoir rock samples (Berea Sandstone, Guelph Dolomite, and Indiana Limestone). An improved version of the standard evaporation method (HYPROP) was developed to cater specifically to rock samples. The improved HYPROP setup enables measurements of local water pressures within rock samples without disturbing the upper portion of the samples. The obtained results were compared with those obtained using the conventional pressure plate method and a state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method. Observed data were analyzed in terms of four different unimodal and bimodal hydraulic functions. The HYPROP data were found to be relatively close to the pressure plate data of two carbonate rocks. The NMR-based data were reasonably consistent with the HYPROP data, with differences likely due in part to the fact that they were obtained using two different 5-cm long plugs taken from the same core. Heterogeneity along the rock cores from which the samples were taken could be a major reason for the observed differences, and hence should be considered in reservoir analyses.

    KEY WORDS: Hydraulic properties; Pressure plate; HYPROP; WP4C; NMR.

    Address:
    - Luwen Zhuang, Center for Water Resources and Environment, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Civil Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    - Fernanda O. Hoerlle, Department of Civil Engineering, LRAP, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    - Hao Chen, Center for Water Resources and Environment, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Civil Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    - Elizabeth M. Pontedeiro, Department of Civil Engineering, LRAP, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    - Martinus Th. van Genuchten, Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands. Department of Nuclear Engineering, LASME, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    - Paulo Couto, Department of Civil Engineering, LRAP, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    - Chao-Zhong Qin, School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.
    - Kairong Lin, Center for Water Resources and Environment, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Civil Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: linkr@mail.sysu.edu.cn)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 72, No. 3 - Early View, 2024, p. 1 - 10, doi: 10.2478/johh-2024-0011
Scientific Paper, English

Igor Matečný, Peter Pišút, Ľuboš Havloň, František Petrovič: Development of forest ecosystems on biota monitoring plots in the area of influence of Gabčíkovo Waterwork

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  • The construction and operation of waterworks has a significant impact on natural ecosystems. The evaluation of their negative impact and the proposal to minimize their impact, as well as the revitalization, especially of large rivers, have been given great importance in recent decades. The main goal of the study is to present impact of Gabčíkovo Waterwork on forest ecosystems after 30 years of damming. Specially evaluated are monitoring sites where changes are observed in the Slovak part of the so-called inland delta, i.e., between old and new riverbed of the Danube. The assessment of changes in terrestrial vegetation on selected monitoring sites was compared with the assessment of parallel measured soil moisture data. At the same time, data from the National Forestry Centre were also used to monitor changes in the state of forest ecosystems in the whole area of interest. When comparing the species composition from state to 2015 and from the period before GW was put into operation (in 1990) an increase was found in the area share of hardwood floodplain forest by 5.77% and the area shares of softwood floodplain forests decreased by 1.71%. Between 1990 and 2015, 68.43% of the territory remained unchanged at the level of forest type groups. A change in habitat conditions towards drier forest types was recorded on 23.61% of the territory.

    KEY WORDS: Long-term monitoring; Fllodplain; Forest ecosystem; Soil moisture; Ecological changes.

    Address:
    - Igor Matečný, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Physical Geography and Geoinformatics, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava 4, Slovakia. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 948 428 409 Fax.: Email: igor.matecny@uniba.sk)
    - Peter Pišút, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Physical Geography and Geoinformatics, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava 4, Slovakia.
    - Ľuboš Havloň, National Forestry Centre, Sokolská 2, 960 52 Zvolen, Slovakia.
    - František Petrovič, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Informatics, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 01, Nitra, Slovakia.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 72, No. 3 - Early View, 2024, p. 1 - 10, doi: 10.2478/johh-2024-0015
Scientific Paper, English

Anastasia Fountouli, Graeme I. Paton, Christine A. Watson, Robin L. Walker, Annette Raffan, Paul D. Hallett: Long-term field pH manipulation influence on microbial activity, water repellency and physical properties of soil

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  • Studies across multiple soils find increasing pH decreases water repellency. In this study, water repellency and a range of other soil physical properties of bulk soils, aggregates and intact specimens were measured on a long-term pH field experiment on a single sandy loam soil under a ley-arable crop rotation, with soil pH adjustments occurring annually by adding FeSO4 or CaCO3, to lower or raise the pH, respectively. Crop impacts were investigated by comparing 3rd year grass-white clover to spring oats, at the beginning (May) and end (September) of the growing season to allow soil structure comparisons. As in previous research, increased CO2 microbial respiration (p<0.05) was found with increasing pH along the gradient, but in this study, we found only the aggregate and soil bulk density affected by soil pH. Soil-water contact angles differed between crops (p<0.05), as well as the repellency index of soil aggregates, however, there was no soil pH effect. Overall, differences in data were found to be a result of the various crops in the rotation rather than by soil pH, indicating only minor impacts on soil physical characteristics after > 55 years of chemical additions to amend soil pH.

    KEY WORDS: Soil physical behaviour; Water repellency; Soil pH; Long-term experiments; Aggregates.

    Address:
    - Anastasia Fountouli, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, Scotland. Crop & Soils Systems, SRUC Aberdeen Campus, Craibstone Estate, Aberdeen AB21 9YA, Scotland. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+33 6971727371 Fax.: Email: ana.fountouli@gmail.com)
    - Graeme I. Paton, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, Scotland.
    - Christine A. Watson, Crop & Soils Systems, SRUC Aberdeen Campus, Craibstone Estate, Aberdeen AB21 9YA, Scotland.
    - Robin L. Walker, Crop & Soils Systems, SRUC Aberdeen Campus, Craibstone Estate, Aberdeen AB21 9YA, Scotland.
    - Annette Raffan, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, Scotland.
    - Paul D. Hallett, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, Scotland.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 72, No. 3 - Early View, 2024, p. 1 - 14, doi: 10.2478/johh-2024-0014
Scientific Paper, English

Rahim Jafari, Jueyi Sui: Channel deformation around non-submerged spur dikes with different alignment angles under ice cover

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  • This study explores how the ice cover on water surfaces affects the deformation of the channel bed around nonsubmerged spur dikes. Laboratory experiments have been conducted by using two types of model ice cover with different roughness coefficients and three sands with different median grain sizes. The effects of various layout angles of nonsubmerged spur dikes on the maximum scour depth and scour patterns around spur dikes have been evaluated. Results showed that the dike orientation angle is the critical factor influencing the maximum scour depth. The presence of an ice cover and its roughness coefficient dramatically affect the channel bed deformation around spur dikes. The combined effect of the dike orientation angle, ice cover roughness, and flow Froude number resulted in different scour patterns. For instance, the upstream length of scour holes decreases by approximately 60% when the dike angle changes from 90º to 60º, while an increase in flow rate by about 50% leads to a 20% increase in the downstream length of scour holes. Equations have been derived to determine the maximum scour depth around spur dikes, considering the effects of ice cover, bed material and the dike layout angles.

    KEY WORDS: Non-submerged spur dikes; Ice cover; Dike layout angles; Scour depth; Non-uniform natural sand.

    Address:
    - Rahim Jafari, School of Engineering, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada.
    - Jueyi Sui, School of Engineering, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: jueyi.sui@unbc.ca)

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 72, No. 3 - Early View, 2024, p. 1 - 24, doi: 10.2478/johh-2024-0013
Scientific Paper, English

Zsolt Kozma, Bence Decsi, Tamás Ács, Zsolt Jolánkai, Miklós Manninger, Norbert Móricz, Gábor Illés, Gyöngyi Barna, András Makó, Brigitta Szabó: Functional evaluation of different soil hydraulic parametrizations in hydrological simulations reveals different model efficiency for soil moisture and water budget

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  • Novel soil datasets and the application of pedotransfer functions provide soil hydraulic input data for modelling hydrological processes at different scales. We aimed to evaluate the reliability of soil hydraulic parameters derived by indirect methods in simulation of soil moisture time series and water budgets at profile level of three sites (Forest, Orchard and Grassland) from a Central European catchment (Lake Balaton, Hungary). Five soil-vegetation-atmosphere model variants were set up with the Hydrus-1D model for each site, differing only in the parametrization of input soil data: i) a calibrated reference, ii) measured values, iii) values predicted from measured basic soil properties, iv) values predicted from national soil map information, v) values derived from the 3D soil hydraulic dataset of Europe. Calibrated soil parameters led to Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency 0.50, 0.54 and 0.71 for the Forest, Orchard and Grassland Site respectively. The outcomes for model efficiency of soil moisture underline the superiority of local databases over regional ones and the need for more detailed vertical discretization during modelling. The model performance according to soil moisture and water budget accuracy led to different rank order of model variants. Water budget comparisons indicated moderate differences between the hydrologic fluxes simulated by the different model variants, emphasizing the uncertainties associated with soil hydraulic parametrization either at local or at watershed scale.

    KEY WORDS: Pedotransfer function; Hydrus-1D; Soil hydraulic properties; Soil moisture dynamics; Water budget.

    Address:
    - Zsolt Kozma, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Műegyetem rkp. 3. H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. National Laboratory for Water Science and Water Security, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Műegyetem rkp. 3. H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. (Corresponding author. Tel.:+36-20-4964745 Fax.: Email: kozma.zsolt@emk.bme.hu)
    - Bence Decsi, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Műegyetem rkp. 3. H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. National Laboratory for Water Science and Water Security, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Műegyetem rkp. 3. H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Tamás Ács, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Műegyetem rkp. 3. H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. National Laboratory for Water Science and Water Security, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Műegyetem rkp. 3. H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Zsolt Jolánkai, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Műegyetem rkp. 3. H-1111 Budapest, Hungary. National Laboratory for Water Science and Water Security, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Műegyetem rkp. 3. H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Miklós Manninger, University of Sopron, Forest Research Institute, Department of Ecology and Forest Management, Várkerület 30/A, H-9600 Sárvár, Hungary.
    - Norbert Móricz, University of Sopron, Forest Research Institute, Department of Ecology and Forest Management, Várkerület 30/A, H-9600 Sárvár, Hungary.
    - Gábor Illés, University of Sopron, Forest Research Institute, Department of Ecology and Forest Management, Várkerület 30/A, H-9600 Sárvár, Hungary.
    - Gyöngyi Barna, Institute for Soil Sciences, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Herman Ottó út 15. H-1022 Budapest, Hungary. National Laboratory for Water Science and Water Security, Institute for Soil Sciences, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Herman Ottó út 15. H-1022 Budapest, Hungary.
    - András Makó, Institute for Soil Sciences, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Herman Ottó út 15. H-1022 Budapest, Hungary. National Laboratory for Water Science and Water Security, Institute for Soil Sciences, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Herman Ottó út 15. H-1022 Budapest, Hungary.
    - Brigitta Szabó, Institute for Soil Sciences, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Herman Ottó út 15. H-1022 Budapest, Hungary. National Laboratory for Water Science and Water Security, Institute for Soil Sciences, HUN-REN Centre for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Herman Ottó út 15. H-1022 Budapest, Hungary.

     




J. Hydrol. Hydromech., Vol. 72, No. 3 - Early View, 2024, p. 1 - 13, doi: 10.2478/johh-2024-0017
Scientific Paper, English

Palmira Bueno-Hurtado, Ousmane Seidou: Empirical and physical modelling of soil erosion in agricultural hillslopes

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  • Soil erosion is a complex and highly heterogeneous process with a wide range of environmental and economic impacts. Its estimation is particularly challenging and modelling is typically used for erosion estimation over large areas. The aim of this study was to compare the two leading empirical and physical erosion estimation models, i.e. the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). The models were calibrated and validated using data collected from field experiments conducted in agricultural lands of Mexico. The simulated rainfall experiments involved measuring erosion from field plots subjected to four tillage systems (No crop, Conventional tillage, Conventional tillage + residues, and Handspike) under two antecedent soil moisture conditions (dry and wet). Different calibration approaches based on the factors K and C for RUSLE, and interrill erodibility and hydraulic conductivity in WEPP were tested. The best-performing methods in RUSLE involved measuring the K factor and adopting the recommended C factor by the National Forestry Commission of Mexico. In WEPP, the best results were obtained when interrill erodibility was estimated from experimental measurements. Overall, RUSLE outperformed WEPP in most of the treatments except for CT under WAMC.

    KEY WORDS: RUSLE; WEPP; Tillage systems; Rainfall simulation.

    Address:
    - Palmira Bueno-Hurtado, Deparment of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur Private, K1N 6N5, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. National Institute of Agricultural, Forestry and Livestock Research, National Center for Disciplinary Research on Water, Soil, Plant and Atmosphere, kilometer 6.5 right bank Sacramento Canal, 35079, Gómez Palacio, Durango, México. (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: pbuen018@uottawa.ca)
    - Ousmane Seidou, Deparment of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur Private, K1N 6N5, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

     




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email: jhh@savba.sk


Acta Hydrologica Slovaca
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/ah

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