Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 291 - 298, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Marián Melo, Dajana Bernáthová: Historical floods in Slaná river basin since the end of the 18 th century till the beginning of the 20 th century

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  • This paper brings the information about historical floods on Slaná river and its tributaries since the end of the 18th century to the end of 1915, obtained by studying of historical documents in archives. Most of the presented information about floods in this area has its origin in newspaper articles Sajó Vidék and they are related mainly to the beginning of the 20th century. From the former study period there are available only references to stronger floods with extensive damages in the archives.

    KEY WORDS: flood, archive, newspaper, Rožňava, Slaná, Rimava

    Address:
    - Marián Melo, Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave Fakulta matematiky, fyziky a informatiky Mlynská dolina 842 48 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: melo@fmph.uniba.sk)
    - Dajana Bernáthová, Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave Prírodovedecká fakulta UK Mlynská dolina 842 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 299 - 307, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Pavol Miklánek, Pavla Pekárová, Dana Halmová: Historic flood of 1813 in the light of the flood marks. Part I: The Vah river basin

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  • In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected, but streams in the Little Carpathians – e.g. Gidra River, were also affected. The aim of this study is to map the flood marks currently maintained of this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. The study consists from three parts. In the first part we deal with the description of flood marks along the Váh River, in the second part of the Hron, Poprad (Vistula) and Hnilec River basins. In the third part, we developed a procedure for determining design flow with a very low probability of occurrence (flow with an average return period of once every 200 to 1,000 years) at three gauging stations: Váh River in Liptovský Mikuláš, Hron River in Banská Bystrica and Poprad River in Chmeľnica. We used time series of peak/maximum annual flows that were completed by historic floods, which flows were derived in the Part I and Part II.

    KEY WORDS: historic flood, year 1813, flood marks

    Address:
    - Pavol Miklánek, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: miklanek@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Dana Halmová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 308 - 318, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Dana Halmová, Pavla Pekárová, Pavol Miklánek, Veronika Bačová Mitková: Historic flood of 1813 in the light of the flood marks. Part II.: In the Hron, Hnilec, Poprad and Vistula river basins

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  • The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and the Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron- Banska Bystrica. In the text are marginally mentioned other major floods, for example, from the years 1784, 1853, 1874, 1903 and 1974.

    KEY WORDS: historic flood, year 1813, flood marks, extreme flood peak

    Address:
    - Dana Halmová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: halmova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Pavol Miklánek, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 83102 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 319 - 326, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Pavla Pekárová, , , Dana Halmová, Pavol Miklánek: Historical flood of 1813 in the light of the flood marks. Part III.: Assessment of the N–year flow having included the historical floods to time series of Qmax

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  • The third part of the study deals with estimating the parameters of theoretical distribution functions of maximum annual discharges in the case of historical flood flows inclusion into the time series of measured maximum annual discharges. When estimating the theoretical functions we used measured time series of three gauging stations: Váh River in Liptovský Mikuláš, Poprad River in Chmeľnica and Hron River in Banská Bystrica. Time series of Qmax of these stations can be considered stationary, homogeneous; flood waves are not transformed by constructed water reservoirs.

    KEY WORDS: historic flood, extreme flood peak, N-year maximum flows

    Address:
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: pekarova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Peter Škoda, - Ján Pekár, - Dana Halmová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Pavol Miklánek, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 327 - 336, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Branislav Pramuk, Pavla Pekárová, Dana Halmová: Identification of flood flows changes of the Danube River in Bratislava station in period 1876–1943 and 1944–2010

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  • This paper is focused on evaluation of changes in the number, duration time and size of flood waves of the Danube River in Bratislava station. For analysis of flood flows was used database of daily discharges of the Danube River (Project No. 9 IHP UNESCO – Flood regime of rivers in the Danube river basin). In this paper was selected model station Danube: Bratislava with long series of observations (1876-2010). Paper describes used method and statistical software IHA (Indicators of Hydrological Alternations). Software IHA is suitable for evaluation maximal and also minimal discharges. Software will be meaningful only with long series of input data. Our results confirm that average annual discharges of the Danube river are stable - do not change. However there is increasing of flood frequency, but on the other side is proportional reduction of their duration. Increases the speed of fall and rise rate of floods of the Danube River in Bratislava station. After the year 1960 starts small floods occurring also in months September-December, in present are floods less common in January.

    KEY WORDS: Danube River, statistical analysis of floods, IHA software

    Address:
    - Branislav Pramuk, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: pramuk@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavla Pekárová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Dana Halmová, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 337 - 347, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Veronika Bačová Mitková, Pavla Pekárová, Peter Škoda: The use of the NLN-Danube model for the 2013 flood forecast and simulation of the catastrophic scenario flood on the Danube River

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  • In simulations of the transformation of the flood waves in river channel the hydrological river models can be good tool for solution of this hydrological problem. This paper presents prediction of the transformation of the flood wave on Slovak reach of the Danube River, which occurred in June 2013, using the non-linear river model NLN-Danube. Subsequently, the model was used to simulate scenario catastrophic flood on the Danube River in August 1501 for present drainage conditions on the Danube River.

    KEY WORDS: the Danube River, flood in June 2013, non-linear river model, catastrophic flood scenario

    Address:
    - Veronika Bačová Mitková, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: mitkova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Pavla Pekárová, Institute of Hydrology SAS, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Peter Škoda, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute Jeséniova 17 833 15 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 348 - 358, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Milan Čistý, Juraj Bezák: Application of the Ensemble modeling methodology in hydrological forecasting

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  • This work presents the application of a data-driven model for stream flow predictions, which can be one of the possibilities for the preventive protection of a population and its property. A new methodology was investigated in which ensemble modeling by utilization of strong, state-of-the-art data-driven models was applied, and in which harmony search was used to optimize the ensemble structure. The diversity of the individual basic learners which form the ensemble is achieved through the application of different learning algorithms. In the proposed ensemble modeling of river flow predictions, powerful algorithms with excelent performances were used as ensemble constituents (gradient boosting machines, support vector machines, random forests, etc.). The question investigated in this paper was, if it is still possible to improve predictions of such strong algorithms using ensemble paradigm. The proposed ensemble provides a better degree of precision in the prediction task, which was evaluated as a case study in comparison with the ensemble components, although they were powerful algorithms themselves. For this reason the proposed methodology could be considered as a prospective tool in flood predictions task.

    KEY WORDS: artificial neural networks, ensemble modeling, hydrological forecasting

    Address:
    - Milan Čistý, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: milan.cisty@stuba.sk)
    - Juraj Bezák, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 359 - 371, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Roman Výleta, Ján Szolgay: Model of alternating dry and wet periods for stochastic modeling of daily precipitation occurrence

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  • The stochastic modeling of daily precipitation is divided into two parts, generation of precipitation occurrence and simulation of precipitation quantity. The generator of precipitation is composed of a model of precipitation occurrence and a model of precipitation quantity. In this paper we deal with the development of a new methodology, model of precipitation occurrence, which is used for stochastic modeling of alternation of dry and wet periods with different duration. We assume that within this model the duration of these periods in a series of consecutive days are independent. In this method it is necessary to derive the suitable type of probability distribution for the frequency of consecutive wet and dry periods. The developed methodology is tested for the mountain areas on the Váh River basin up to profile Liptovský Mikuláš in Slovakia.

    KEY WORDS: generator of precipitation, model of precipitation occurrence, stochastic modeling of precipitation occurrence, dry and wet periods, probability distribution, correlogram

    Address:
    - Roman Výleta, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: +4212 59274 498 Fax.: +4212 52923 575 Email: roman.vyleta@stuba.sk)
    - Ján Szolgay, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 372 - 379, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Ladislav Holko, Michal Danko, Zdeněk Kostka, Soňa Liová: Runoff evolution in stream network of a mountain catchment during snowmelt

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  • Hourly discharge data from the upper Váh river catchment down to Liptovský Mikuláš in March-May 2012 revealed several types of hydrological reaction during the snowmelt period (streams above Liptovský Hrádok, tributaries from the left side, tributaries from the right side) . Discharge in the Váh river in Liptovský Mikuláš during the maximum (end of April and beginning of May) was determined mainly by the Belá river and tributaries down from Liptovský Hrádok. Travel times of the events were mostly about 2 hours. Snowmelt contribution to total catchment runoff was until 20th April minimal. It rose only during the discharge maximum. Maximum contributions of snowmelt water was up to 60%.

    KEY WORDS: snowmelt, discharge evolution, isotopic hydrograph separation

    Address:
    - Ladislav Holko, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421445522522 Fax.: Email: holko@uh.savba.sk)
    - Michal Danko, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Zdeněk Kostka, Ústav hydrológie SAV Experimentálna hydrologická základňa, Ondrašovecká 16, 03105 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenská republika
    - Soňa Liová, Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav Bôrická cesta č. 103 011 13 Žilina, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: Sona.Liova@shmu.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 380 - 391, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Dana Baroková: The impact of small hydro power plant on the groundwater regime

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  • One of the effects of a small hydro power plant is a change of groundwater level regime in adjacent area. The article discusses how to avoid the negative impact of the planned small hydro power plant Želiezovce on the groundwater regime using numerical model as well as for prognosis efficiency of proposed measures, which would minimize the affect of construction on the groundwater level regime. Submitted groundwater model was created using the groundwater simulation package TRIWACO.

    KEY WORDS: groundwater level regime, numerical model, small hydro power plant, cut-off wall, drainage, TRIWACO

    Address:
    - Dana Baroková, Katedra hydrotechniky Stavebnej fakulty STU, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: +421 2 59274 693 Fax.: Email: dana.barokova@stuba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 392 - 401, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Yvetta Velísková, Peter Halaj, Marek Sokáč: Sensibility of HEC-RAS model to changes of dispersion coefficient as input model parameter

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  • The paper deals with an analysis of the one-dimensional numerical model HEC-RAS application results for the solution of tasks linked with pollution transport in streams . Correctness and applicability of the model for solving such problems was verified by simulating of tracer experiments in river. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient value D is an important input parameter for numerical models of pollution transport in surface streams, based on hydraulic aproach. To obtain the correct values of this parameter is rather difficult in practice. We performed some tracer experiments in the Mala Nitra River, so that this stream was chosen as a suitable of sensitivity analysis. The values of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient for streams with a similar character (and for limited discharge conditions), should fall in the range from 0,05 to 2,5 m2.s-1 according to the previous evaluation and analysis. We used these values for the model reaction, but also next ones. The sensitivity analysis of HEC-RAS model showed its adequate response. Taking into account the obtained results, we can conclude that the HEC-RAS model responds to changes of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient appropriately. HEC-RAS model has proved its applicability for simulation of pollution spreading in streams and therefore is a suitable tool for decision-making process related to water quality problems.

    KEY WORDS: surface stream, pollution spreading, longitudinal dispersion coefficient, HEC-RAS model, sensitivity analysis

    Address:
    - Yvetta Velísková, Ústav hydrológie, Slovenská akadémia vied, Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:00421 2 44456 937 Fax.: Email: veliskova@uh.savba.sk)
    - Peter Halaj, Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre, Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Katedra krajinného inžinierstva, Hospodárska 7, 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:00421 37 641 5232 Fax.: Email: peter.halaj@uniag.sk)
    - Marek Sokáč, Slovenská technická univerzita, Stavebná fakulta, Katedra zdravotného a environmentálneho inžinierstva Radlinského 11 , 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:00421 2 59 274 286 Fax.: Email: marek.sokac@stuba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 402 - 413, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Daniel Kubinský, Jakub Fuska, Karol Weis, Milan Lehotský: Change of accumulation volume of Great Richňava and Small Richňava water reservoirs

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  • The article focused on the evaluation of accumulation volume changes in two Richňavas water reservoirs in period of 125 years (1888 – 2013) by comparing historical maps and using modern surveying technologies and GIS. The results present a reduction in total volume by 110494 m3 in the Great Richňava and 46152 m3 in Small Richňava. Paper contains also the procedures of the terrain data collecting. Detailed bottom relief is molded for both reservoirs and two chosen time horizons. We calculated current reservoirs volume using by multiple software tools. The article also documented the original parameters of the two reservoirs from the time of their construction. In conclusion are presented probable reasons and solutions for the reduction of sedimentation in two Richňava reservoirs.

    KEY WORDS: Richňava water reservoirs, accumulation volume change, ultrasonic measurements, historical maps, sedimentation

    Address:
    - Daniel Kubinský, Katedra biológie a ekológie Fakulta prírodných vied Univerzita Mateja Bela Tajovského 40 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: posta@dkubinsky.sk)
    - Jakub Fuska, Katedra krajinného inžinierstva Fakulta záhradníctva a krajinného inžinierstva Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita Hospodárska 7 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: fuska.jakub@gmail.com)
    - Karol Weis, Katedra geografie, geológie a krajinnej ekológie, Fakulta prírodných vied, Univerzita Mateja Bela, Tajovského 40, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: karol.weis@umb.sk)
    - Milan Lehotský, Geografický ústav SAV, Slovenská akadémia vied, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: geogleho@savba.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 414 - 421, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Danka Grambličková, Emília Bednárová, Marián Minárik: Selected lessons learned from assessment of filtration stability of flood protection dikes during extreme hydrodynamic loading using finite element method

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  • In recent years, the predicted climate change affects the increased necessity of regulation of the water regime. Here play important role the structures of flood protection - retention reservoirs, polders and flood protection dikes. Their reliable operation is tied to the solution of a wide range of issues focused on assessment of their safety and, if necessary, designing optimal remediation measures. A suitable method of solving problems of filtration stability is finite element method. In the present article, attention is focused on the knowledge and experience with its application in assessing the filtration stability of dikes under extreme hydrodynamic loading, with regard to some of the important factors affecting the reliability of the results. We present application of the FEM in assessing the safety of a flood protection dike of river Hron in section km 0.275 - 0.544, where were at increased water levels repeatedly registered seepages through its body and subsoil.

    KEY WORDS: flood protection dyke, subsoil, filtration velocity, filtration stability, uplift, remediation measures, finite element method

    Address:
    - Danka Grambličková, Katedra geotechniky, SvF STU, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:00421 2 592 74 670 Fax.: Email: danka.gramblickova@stuba.sk)
    - Emília Bednárová, Katedra geotechniky, SvF STU Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Marián Minárik, Katedra geotechniky, SvF STU, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 422 - 428, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Jana Urminská: Lead as a potentially toxic element in burdened territory by anthropogenic activities from contaminated sediments

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  • Sediments have been important source of (toxic) pollutants in the environment of contaminated areas. The aim of this paper was to analyse and evaluate the sediment of selected water reservoirs the Počúvadlo, the Little Richňava, the Great Richňava, the Windsachta, to determine the concentrations of lead in monitored water reservoirs in the Banská Štiavnica region. In the study area samples were collected from year 2001 to 2010. According to the methodology used in the study area, degrees of intensity of potential contamination can be set apart. From the lowest degree - sediments slightly polluted by hazardous chemical substances, without observable signs of anthropogenic pollution up to sediments with documented presence of high pollution. For statistical processing the „analysis of the Index method“ and „Correlation coefficient by Spearman method“ was used. The analyses of the sediment samples were performed with the methods of flow electrochemistry and the atomic absorption spectrometry.

    KEY WORDS: lead, sediment, analysis of the Index, Correlation coefficient by Spearman, Banská Štiavnica

    Address:
    - Jana Urminská, Katedra environmentalistiky a zoológie Fakulta agrobiológie a potravinových zdrojov Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: +421 037 641 4423 Fax.: Email: Jana.Urminska@uniag.sk)

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 429 - 436, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Mária Pásztorová, Justína Vitková, Miroslava Jarabicová, Viliam Nagy: The impact of Gabčíkovo waterwork on soil water regime

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  • Rye Island is a unique natural formation, which lies between the main flow of the Danube River and the Little Danube River, and is the largest river island in Europe. It is located in the southwest of Slovakia and with its mild to slightly warm climate is one of the most fertile agricultural areas in Slovakia. The whole Rye Island is also our greatest reservoir of quality waters used for drinking purposes, where groundwater of Rye Island are permanently supplied by water from Danube. It means, that as water levels in Danube were before building Gabčíkovo waterwork (GWW) unstable, also the groundwater level was underlie to large fluctuations. Change occurred after putting GWW into operation, when a suspension of decrease in groundwater levels occurred. Thereby conditions for agriculture have improved and drying of surrounding protected floodplain forests has stopped. Through the present contribution we decided to analyze the impact of GWW on soil water regime on the area of Rye Island, and evaluate the development of groundwater level, precipitation and soil water storage. For the representative area we chose a forest ecosystem of Kráľovská Lúka and evaluated the period 1999 to 2009.

    KEY WORDS: Gabčíkovo waterwork, soil water regime, groundwater level, precipitation, soil water storage

    Address:
    - Mária Pásztorová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 02 592 74 616 Fax.: Email: maria.pasztorova@stuba.sk)
    - Justína Vitková, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 0 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Miroslava Jarabicová, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Viliam Nagy, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 0 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 437 - 445, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Tatiana Kaletová, Kristína Mandalová, : Evaluation of sustainable development with respect to land use and water quality in the Poprad catchment

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  • Poprad catchment was chosen as an area of interest. The aim of a paper is a population and land use impact on the water quality in the Poprad, Kežmarok and Stará Ľubovňa district according to Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic and Slovak Hydrometeorology Institute data sets. The water quality was evaluated in the years 1972-2011 from the three stations – Poprad – pod Svitom, Poprad – Veľká Lomnica and Poprad – Čirč. During the observed period the population increased in all districts with the minimum land use change. Decreasing trend of BOD5 as well as CODMn in the station Poprad – pod Svitom was noticed, in the stations Poprad – Veľká Lomnica and Poprad – Čirč the decreasing trend was minimum. Progress of N-NO3 and N-NH4 values was unstable and there was no visible decreasing or increasing trend of values.

    KEY WORDS: demography, land use, water quality, Poprad catchment

    Address:
    - Tatiana Kaletová, Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: tatiana.kaletova@uniag.sk)
    - Kristína Mandalová, Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovenská republika
    - Peter Stradiot

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 446 - 450, doi:
Scientific Paper, English

Márton Jolánkai, István Balla, Barnabás Pósa, Ákos Tarnawa, Márta Birkás: Annual precipitation impacts on the quantity and quality manifestation of wheat and maize yield

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  • Yield samples of winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. and maize Zea mays L. taken from consecutive harvests of crop years at the Nagygombos experimental site of the Szent István University have been evaluated. Impact of precipitation on yield quantity and quality was studied. In case of wheat protein, wet gluten, farinographic value and Hagberg sedimentation, while in case of maize protein, starch, oil and fibre content was evaluated. Yield figures of wheat and maize varieties have been highly variable regarding crop years. In general wheat was less affected by precipitation, but extremely high precipitation and drought also caused yield depression. Water demand of yield formation was in accordance with that of C3 – C4 physiological patterns. There were significant yield differences in different crop years. Wet gluten content of wheat samples proved to be a most stable characteristic. Protein, farinographic values and Hagberg sedimentation figures were more variable in relation with the precipitation of crop years. Yield quantity of maize proved to be more variable than quality parametres of the crop. The amount of protein was smaller, and starch values higher in rainy years. Oil and fibre parametres have shown no consequent changes that could be related to the amount of annual precipitation.

    KEY WORDS: precipitation impacts, grain crops, yield, quality

    Address:
    - Márton Jolánkai, Szent István University 2100 Gödöllő Páter Károly utca 1 Hungary (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: jolankai.marton@mkk.szie.hu)
    - István Balla, Szent István University 2100 Gödöllő Páter Károly utca 1 Hungary
    - Barnabás Pósa, Szent István University 2100 Gödöllő Páter Károly utca 1 Hungary
    - Ákos Tarnawa, Szent István University 2100 Gödöllő Páter Károly utca 1 Hungary
    - Márta Birkás, Szent István University 2100 Gödöllő Páter Károly utca 1 Hungary

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 451 - 459, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Zbyněk Bajtek, Milan Čistý, Tomáš Mészáros: Demand driven versus pressure driven hydraulic evaluation of irrigation network

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  • Hydraulics evaluation of irrigation water distribution networks can be approached two different ways. First possibility represents demand-driven analysis, where on the first place lies nodal demand regardless from actual pressure. The other way represents pressure driven analysis which recognizes the relation between nodal heads and nodal flows. This approach is also applicable in scenarios, where the demand is fully dependent on pressure like irrigation sprinkler system. It is very desirable that reliability analysis techniques based on interpretations of demanddriven results from a pressure driven perspective be evaluated therefore this paper present comparison these two approaches applied on older irrigation network in southern part of Slovakia. For these purposes we have used hydraulic software, namely EPANET. Various demand condition were created by an algorithm in the meaning of demand nodes placement. The acquired results represent information about overall behavior of the irrigation network. The purpose of this paper is to explore possibility and limits of these two approaches to water distribution network analysis.

    KEY WORDS: irrigation networks, simulation model, demand driven analysis, pressure driven analysis

    Address:
    - Zbyněk Bajtek, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: Fax.: Email: zbynek.bajtek@stuba.sk)
    - Milan Čistý, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Tomáš Mészáros, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta Slovenskej technickej univerzity v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 460 - 465, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Marek Rodný, Patrik Rodný, Peter Šurda, Svatopluk Matula, Markéta Miháliková, Ayele Teressa Chala: Automation of mini disk infiltrometer based on particle tracking principle

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  • Innovations in the field of experimental determination of soil hydrophysical properties should increase experiment objectivity, reproducibility and decrease its time consumption. In the following study we present basic aspects and ideas behind the novel, digital method for automated use of the minidisk infiltrometer (Model S - Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) which could be applied without permanent construction changes of the infiltrometer body and in relatively low cost manner, using a simple electronic device with integrated digital camera (e.g. Smartphone). Negligible differences found between results of infiltration tests realized using digital image analysis and using the standard visual inspection could be viewed as a proof of the proposed method.

    KEY WORDS: the minidisk infiltrometer, soil hydrophysical properties, infiltration tests

    Address:
    - Marek Rodný, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 0 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+421 02 492 682 76 Fax.: Email: rodny@uh.savba.sk)
    - Patrik Rodný, Katedra vodného hospodárstva krajiny Stavebná fakulta STU v Bratislave, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Peter Šurda, Ústav hydrológie SAV, Račianska 75, 831 0 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Svatopluk Matula, Katedra vodních zdrojů Fakulta agrobiologie, potravinových a přírodních zdrojů, ČZU v Praze Kamýcká 129 165 21 Praha, Česká republika
    - Markéta Miháliková, Katedra vodních zdrojů Fakulta agrobiologie, potravinových a přírodních zdrojů, ČZU v Praze Kamýcká 129 165 21 Praha, Česká republika
    - Ayele Teressa Chala, Katedra vodních zdrojů Fakulta agrobiologie, potravinových a přírodních zdrojů, ČZU v Praze Kamýcká 129 165 21 Praha, Česká republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 466 - 472, doi:
Scientific Paper, Slovak

Peter Šurda, Marek Rodný, Viliam Nagy, Svatopluk Matula, Markéta Miháliková, Ayale Teressa Chala: Spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil with biological soil crust in the horizontal and vertical direction

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  • Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K(h)) is an important soil physical property, especially for determining infiltration rate. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, fungi and lichens covering the first millimeters of the topsoil. BSC can influence the hydrophysical parameters and water flow in soils considerably, mainly due to soil water repellency. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial variability of the K(-2 cm) and water repellency index in horizontal and vertical direction in the soil with BSC. Measurement in the horizontal direction was conducted on the unaltered soil surface with BSC. The results of K(-2 cm) measurements are relatively homogenous. Spatially, we observed lower values of K(-2 cm) directly under the three-top, due to the greater incidence of needles from pines. Within the measurements in the vertical horizon, we expected that the values of water repellency index (R) will decrease with depth and the values of K(-2 cm) will rise. This thesis was confirmed, the lowest value of K(-2 cm) was measured in depth of 10cm under the surface and the values were gradually increasing, up to the depth of 40cm, where the effect of water repellency disappeared. Decrease of the K(-2 cm) values and increase of the R values is possible to describe through the use of relatively reliable mathematical relationship. If we compare the measurements in horizontal and vertical plane, we can state that higher variability occurred in the vertical axis. Distribution of the K(-2 cm) values according to the depth of soil profile is possible to use in the mathematical modeling of the soil water movement, but have to take into account the fact that the water repellent soil profiles have been associated with preferential flow.

    KEY WORDS: hydraulic conductivity of the soil, water repellency, minidisc infiltrometer

    Address:
    - Peter Šurda, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: +421268253 Fax.: Email: surda@uh.savba.sk)
    - Marek Rodný, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Viliam Nagy, Ústav hydrológie SAV Račianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava, Slovenská republika
    - Svatopluk Matula, Katedra vodních zdrojů Fakulta agrobiologie, potravinových a přírodních zdrojů, ČZU v Praze Kamýcká 129 165 21 Praha, Česká republika
    - Markéta Miháliková, Katedra vodních zdrojů Fakulta agrobiologie, potravinových a přírodních zdrojů, ČZU v Praze Kamýcká 129 165 21 Praha, Česká republika (Corresponding author. Tel.:+42022438 2572 Fax.: Email: mihalikova@af.czu.cz chala@af.czu.cz)
    - Ayale Teressa Chala, Katedra vodních zdrojů Fakulta agrobiologie, potravinových a přírodních zdrojů, ČZU v Praze Kamýcká 129 165 21 Praha, Česká republika

     




Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2013, p. 473 - 478, doi:
Scientific Paper, Czech

Ivana Kameníčková, Lucie Larišová: Pedotransfer functions for estimation of retention curves of medium-heavy soils from the site Bohaté Málkovice

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  • Soil moisture retention curve and hydraulic conductivity belong to basic characteristics describing hydraulic properties of soil. Measurement of hydraulic characteristics of soil, especially retention curve, is time-consuming and expensive. As an alternative solution, which may be accurate enough, seems to use pedotransfer functions (PTFs) to estimate these properties instead of direct measurements. This is an indirect method, using analytical expression of retention curve. Parameters acting in this expression are obtained by regression based on easily available soil characteristics such as particle size distribution, soil bulk density, organic matter content and other. Presented study is focused creating a local database with hydrophysical data that are used to estimate the retention curves using two models of PTF. In the first part of the study a validated model according Šútor and Štekauerová (2000) is used to estimate the retention curves. In the second part were used model derived by Wösten et al. (1998). Both PTFs were derived for arable land of the site Bohaté Málkovice. Accuracy of estimated PTFs of the two models was evaluated by correlation coefficient R and standard error RMSE. Selected simple models of pedotransfer functions provide estimations of retention curves for the site with sufficient accuracy for practical use.

    KEY WORDS: retention curve, the hydraulic characteristics of the soil, pedotransfer functions, multiple linear regression

    Address:
    - Ivana Kameníčková, Ústav vodního hospodářství krajiny, Veveří 95, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika (Corresponding author. Tel.: +420541147782 Fax.: Email: kamenickova.i@fce.vutbr.cz)
    - Lucie Larišová, Ústav vodního hospodářství krajiny, Veveří 95, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika

     




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Institute of Hydrology SAS
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email: Yvetta.Veliskova@savba.sk

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Institute of Hydrology SAS
Dúbravská cesta 9
841 04 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
web: www.ih.sav.sk/jhh

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